Anabolic SteroidsAndrogens and anabolic steroids include the male sex hormone testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and androgenic anabolic testosterone agents that behave androgenic anabolic testosterone these sex hormones. They stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics such as deepening of voice and growth of beard define anabolic and catabolic processes development of male sex organs. Anabolic steroids stimulate growth in many types of tissues, especially bone and muscle. Anabolic effects also include increased production of red blood cells. Androgens and anabolic steroids are used as replacement therapy to androgenic anabolic testosterone delayed puberty in adolescent boys, hypogonadism and impotence tesstosterone men, and to treat breast cancer in women.
Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. - PubMed - NCBI
Steroids are made up of many steroid rings, in which these rings consists of a combination of "one 5 carbon ring, and 3 six carbon rings" Cholesterol being the primary structure , Kishner, page 1. Steroids comprise of all the form acquired from the basic ring structure, one of them being testosterone and the anabolic-androgenic steroids AASs. Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone, a driving force responsible for male characteristics like muscle growth, facial hair, voice deepening.
As the body absorbs testosterone in the body, it fits into the receptor sites of cells and activates the cells. After the testosterone molecule enters the cell, protein synthesis and phosphate synthesis is significantly increased due to the addition of RNA polymerase. Phosphate synthesis allows for the production of additional creatine phosphate, which allows for greater amount of work in the absence of oxygen while an increased protein synthesis allows for increased transcription.
Anabolic steroids also lead to greater nitrogen retention in the body. A positive nitrogen balance in the body is needed for muscle production since a negative nitrogen balance is created when strenuous forced is applied on the body.
Since the body only produces about mg of testosterone per day and most AAS abusers use up to mg of testosterone a week, it become very significant in its affect in muscle growth. The human's main hormone that makes the androgenic a compound that is made up of other compounds , which administer the growth and nurturing of the distinct male characteristics. It is a significant hormone because it help restore the health of tissues, and supply muscle mass anabolic: Therefore, both the ability of androgenic and anabolic gives testosterone a double action mechanism.
Throughout the years, biochemists have been trying to convert and adjust testosterone structure to make medications that can either be taken orally, or have a different breakdown when dissolved into the body, or even better, a drug that can do both. After many years of researching, scientists have come to the conclusion that by substituting and changing certain portion of the testosterone molecule, it may have a big impact on the effect; but unfortunately, it has not yet been discovered.
Testosterone and the anabolic-androgenic steroids have been use as treatments for these diseases:. Although it has been used properly by some, many others have misused the drug for other purposes, such as to boost their normal anabolic and androgenic ability with the intension to better their physical image and strength. To improve the AAS research, biochemists have created an objective to alter the molecules to be "more anabolic and less androgenic" than testosterone, in which makes it possible to take orally, and have a reduce effect on the HPG axis Stephen Kishner, page 3.
Testosterone and nortestosterone is a very similar compound, very much alike except nortestpsterone doesn't include the 19th carbon. This modification expand the half life of the drug and therefore, allowing the medication to be active and can be taken orally. Although the revision was helpful in some ways, it also had consequences because this new compound was not exactly like the original. In addition, all of the carbon added compound was effected, and caused chemical damages to the liver.