240 Creatine Ethyl Ester Anabolic Growth Pills TabletsNumerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males. The supplements creatine ethyl ester anabolic growth pills orally ingested at a dose of 0. Significant changes over time were observed for body composition, body water, muscle strength and power variables, but no esster differences were observed between groups. In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels ggowth in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power. Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed creatie the sustanon dosage for cutting protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen.
Extreme Mass Gain capsules Creatine Ethyl Ester CEE BCAAs () Leuc – optimum-fx
Numerous creatine formulations have been developed primarily to maximize creatine absorption. Creatine ethyl ester is alleged to increase creatine bio-availability. This study examined how a seven-week supplementation regimen combined with resistance training affected body composition, muscle mass, muscle strength and power, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels in 30 non-resistance-trained males.
The supplements were orally ingested at a dose of 0. Significant changes over time were observed for body composition, body water, muscle strength and power variables, but no significant differences were observed between groups. In conclusion, when compared to creatine monohydrate, creatine ethyl ester was not as effective at increasing serum and muscle creatine levels or in improving body composition, muscle mass, strength, and power.
Therefore, the improvements in these variables can most likely be attributed to the training protocol itself, rather than the supplementation regimen. Creatine or methyl guanidine acetic acid is supplied by exogenous sources such as fish and red meat and is endogenously synthesized from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine [ 2 ]. The phosphagen system provides a rapid resynthesis of ATP from ADP with the use of phosphocreatine PCr through the reversible reaction of creatine kinase [ 2 - 4 ].
The average 70 kg person has a total creatine pool of — g. Creatine supplementation has the ability to increase skeletal muscle stores of creatine and PCr, which could therefore increase skeletal muscle's ability to increase ATP resynthesis from ADP. A previous study [ 6 ] employing 20 g of creatine for 6 days showed an increase in PCr concentrations after a maximal isometric contraction during 16 and 32 seconds of recovery.
Resistance training along with creatine supplementation has typically been shown to be more beneficial at increasing body mass, maximal strength, and weight lifting performance compared to placebo, but responses are variable [ 7 ]. With the ergogenic benefits consistently being shown in both research settings and among the general population, creatine has become one of the most recognized ergogenic aids to date. Several hundred studies have examined creatine supplementation's effectiveness in improving muscle performance.
Aside from differences such as experimental design, amount and duration of creatine dosage, training status of participants, etc. The creatine transporter is directly involved in the extracellular uptake of creatine to increase the pool of metabolically active creatine in muscle [ 9 ]. It appears that intramuscular creatine uptake is dependent on creatine transporter activity, which has resulted in numerous creatine formulations having been developed in an attempt to improve muscle creatine uptake and potentially increasing the efficacy of creatine supplementation [ 10 ].
Due to variations in intramuscular creatine uptake in response to creatine supplementation, it has been suggested that creatine alone may have a limited ability to maximally activate the creatine transporter. Numerous creatine formulations have been developed recently which combine creatine with carbohydrate, sodium, or esterified alcohol with the primary intent of improving cellular absorption and transport which may maximize total intramuscular creatine concentration, thereby improving muscular performance.
These new products may prove beneficial increasing creatine uptake by up-regulating or by-passing the creatine transporter.
A comparison of creatine monohydrate, creatine with dextrose, and effervescent creatine showed added benefit when dextrose is combined with creatine, but no additional benefits of effervescent creatine compared to creatine monohydrate [ 11 ].
Another study combined creatine with magnesium and showed no additional performance benefits compared to creatine monohydrate [ 12 ]. Additionally, creatine solubilized in liquid was ineffective at increasing creatine retention compared to creatine monohydrate [ 8 ].
The molecular structure of creatine consists of a negatively charged carboxyl group and a positively charged functional group [ 13 ]. Creatine is a polar molecule and hydrophilic due to this composition, which limits creatine bioavailability. Esterification is a process widely used by pharmaceutical companies to increase bioavailability of certain prescription drugs with low bioavailability.
In a continued attempt to more effectively increase intramuscular creatine levels, one of the latest creatine variations is creatine ethyl ester. Esterification of creatine decreases its hydrophilicity, and is alleged by manufacturers of creatine ethyl ester to by-pass the creatine transporter due to enhanced sarcolemmal permeability toward creatine.
However, there are no published data to substantiate this allegation. Furthermore, esterified creatine is unstable in low pH conditions [ 14 , 15 ], and has been shown to be rapidly degraded to creatinine in stomach acid [ 16 ]. Even so, manufacturers of creatine ethyl ester claim that it is superior to other forms of creatine, but there is also no published scientific evidence substantiate these claims.
Therefore, the effectiveness of creatine ethyl ester has not yet been adequately researched and currently no published data exists to substantiate the alleged effectiveness of this supplement.
The primary purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which creatine ethyl ester affects muscle strength and power, body composition, serum and muscle creatine levels, and serum creatinine levels.
Thirty apparently healthy males with a mean age of The participants were not resistance-trained [not following a consistent resistance training program i. All participants were cleared for participation by passing a mandatory medical screening. All eligible subjects signed a university-approved informed consent document.
Additionally, all experimental procedures involved in this study conformed to the ethical considerations of the Helsinki Code. The study included baseline testing at day 0, followed by testing sessions at days 6, 27, and 48 in which blood and muscle samples were obtained and where body composition and muscle performance tests were performed.
The leg press and bench press maximal strength tests Nebula, Versailles, OH were performed by the participants to measure any changes in muscular strength during the course of the study. Four one repetition maximum 1-RM strength tests were performed during the study at days 0, 6, 27, and Weight was gradually increased until a 1-RM was reached with each following lift, with a two-minute rest period in between each successful lift.
Test-retest reliability of performing these strength assessments on subjects within our laboratory has demonstrated low mean coefficients of variation and high reliability for the bench press 1.
Anaerobic power was determined during each of the four testing sessions at days 0, 6, 27, and 48, and expressed relative to body mass. The determinations were made by performing a second Wingate test on a computerized Lode cycle ergometer Groningen, Netherlands. A warm-up of 30 rpm for seconds was followed by maximal sprint for 30 seconds against a workload of 0. Total body mass kg was determined on a standard dual beam balance scale Detecto Bridgeview, IL.
Each of these segments was analyzed for fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass. A sub-region was utilized to determine right thigh mass.
The isolated region extended medially to the pubic symphysis down to the head of the femur. Total body water and compartment-specific fluid volumes were determined by bioelectric impedance analysis Xitron Technologies Inc.
For CRT, each capsule contained mg of creatine monohydrate; however, for CEE each capsule contained mg of creatine ethyl ester. The creatine supplement was shown to contain After baseline testing procedures and fat-free mass determination by DEXA, supplements placebo were ingested relative to fat-free mass based on previous guidelines [ 17 ] for 48 days loading from days 1—5 and maintenance from days 6— Specifically, supplements were ingested at a relative daily dose of 0.
After the initial baseline assessment of body composition at day 0, supplement dosages were subsequently adjusted based on body composition assessments performed at days 6 and In order to standardize supplement intake throughout the study, participants were instructed to ingest the supplements in two equal intervals, one in the morning and one in the evening, throughout the day during the loading phase [ 13 ], and at one constant interval, in the morning, during the maintenance phase.
Compliance to the supplementation protocol was monitored by supplement logs and verbal confirmation. After completing the compliance procedures the subjects were given the required supplement dosage for the following supplementation period.
Participants engaged in a 4-day per week resistance-training program split into two upper and two lower extremity workouts per week for a total of seven weeks. The upper body resistance-training program consisted of nine exercises bench press, lat pull, shoulder press, seated rows, shoulder shrugs, chest flies, biceps curl, triceps press down, and abdominal curls twice per week and a seven exercise lower extremity program leg press or squat, back extension, step ups, leg curls, leg extension, heel raises, and abdominal crunches performed twice per week.
We have previously shown this program to be effective at promoting significant gains in muscle strength and mass [ 18 ]. Rest periods between exercises lasted no longer than three minutes and rest between sets lasted no longer than two minutes. Training sessions were not supervised, but were documented in training logs, and signed off to verify compliance and to monitor progress.
Based on our previously-established guidelines [ 18 ], at each of the four testing sessions at days 0, 6, 27, and 48 percutaneous muscle biopsies 50—70 mg were obtained using a Bergstrom 5 mm needle. Muscle samples were obtained from the middle portion of the vastus lateralis muscle of the dominant leg at the midpoint between the patella and the greater trochanter of the femur, at a depth between one and two cm. For the remaining three biopsies, attempts were made to extract tissue from approximately the same location as the initial biopsy by using the pre-biopsy scar, depth markings on the needle, and a successive incision that was made approximately 0.
At each of the four testing sessions, venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein using a standard Vacutainer apparatus. Once collected, the samples were centrifuged for 15 minutes. An 8-hour fast prior to blood donation was required for the participants before each of the four testing sessions. Using similar methods, serum samples were measured in duplicate for creatine concentration. Serum samples were immediately ready for creatine analysis, whereas muscle tissue had to first be prepared.
For serum creatine analysis, duplicates for all samples yielded a coefficient of variation of 5. Dried muscle was powdered by grinding on a porcelain plate with a pestle.
Connective tissue was removed and discarded, whereas powdered muscle was placed into pre-weighed microfuge tubes. Powdered muscle was extracted in a 0. The supernatant was transferred into a microfuge tube and neutralized with 2. In order to determine muscle total creatine concentration, supernatant from the above reaction was combined with ddH 2 O and 0. The solution was then neutralized with of 2. Then the samples were run in duplicate against a standard curve of known creatine concentrations.
The mean correlation coefficient of variation between duplicates was 1. The standard curve correlation coefficient between plates for total muscle creatine was 0. Throughout the course of the study, participants' dietary intake was not supervised; however, it was required that all participants keep detailed dietary records and not change their routine dietary habits throughout the course of the study.
As such, participants were required to keep weekly physical activity records and four-day dietary records three weekdays and one weekend prior to each of the four testing sessions. The four-day dietary recalls were evaluated with the Food Processor dietary assessment software program ESHA Research, Salem, OR to determine the average daily macronutrient consumption of fat, carbohydrate, and protein.
The participants were instructed to turn in their dietary records during each testing session. In an effort to ensure compliance to the supplementation protocol, participants were supplied with the appropriate amount of supplement to be ingested during the time between last three testing sessions. Upon reporting to the lab for each testing session at days 6, 27, and 48, participants returned the empty containers they had acquired between testing sessions.
Significant differences among groups were identified by a Tukey HSD post-hoc test. Forty-two participants who were initially recruited for the study completed consent forms and participated in an initial familiarization session.
Of the 42 participants recruited, 30 completed the day research study. Five participants dropped out due to illness unrelated to the study, five due to apprehension about blood and muscle sampling, and two did not provide specific reasons. However, none of the participants dropped out due to side effects of the supplements or the resistance training protocol. The diet logs were used to analyze the average caloric and macronutrient consumption relative to total body mass.
However, significant differences among the four testing sessions occurred for mean and peak power. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation in combination with heavy resistance training for 47 days compared to supplementation with creatine monohydrate and a placebo.
Following a 5-day loading phase and a day maintenance phase, creatine ethyl ester was examined for changes in muscle strength and mass, body composition changes, serum creatine and creatinine levels, and muscle total creatine content. Studies have shown the acute ingestion of 5 g and 20 g of creatine monohydrate to increase serum levels of creatine [ 5 ].