Anabolic Steroid AbuseMany sports are taking a tough stand on the use of steroids today. Although steroid use may have been considered acceptable in the past, the idea today is that these drugs provide athletes with an advantage that is potentially unfair. Despite the public perception of drug use for physical enhancements and tough league consequences stats about anabolic steroids place, many athletes in sports stats about anabolic steroids are still using steroids. They see it as a way to get risks of taking testosterone cream professional edge. The percentage of teen steroid users who say they felt like they needed to take the drugs because of images they saw in muscle magazines: As many as 1, Americans, or 0. Adults in the age demographic are twice as likely stats about anabolic steroids have used steroids when compared to the general population.
Steroids (Anabolic) | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Nor will it be the type of medical journal article that only a small percentage of the population can comprehend. This is however far from the truth, the benching that is. The up to minute U. Census Bureau reports a total population of just over million people, of which the National Center For Education Statistics estimates So what do all these numbers and dates mean? Steroid users are also vulnerable to a host of physiological side effects. A quick review of high school science reminds us that physiology, in short, is the branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of living organisms.
More specifically, it concerns the organs, tissues and cells, as well as the chemical reactions between them. Forget acne and excess body hair, physiological side effects are serious and if left untreated can take your life.
Testosterone is essential for the production of sperm, the maintenance of sex drive, erectile potency, and the functioning of the prostate gland and other reproductive structures. The natural production of testosterone is controlled by another set of hormones called gonadotrophins, which are released from the pituitary gland in the brain.
AAS use can throw this delicate system out of balance resulting in gonadotrophin suppression which can cause testicular atrophy shrunken testicles , impotence, decreased sex drive, decreased mental and physical activity, infertility due to decreased sperm production and bone loss 1, 2, 3.
The reversibility of these effects varies and is largely dependent on the type, combination, amount and duration of AAS. Some studies suggest that restoration of hormonal balance after discontinuation of AAS use allows testicular function to return to normal 4, 5 , whereas other studies have shown the persistence of hormonal abnormalities even after discontinuation 6, 7.
In spite of the apparent positive effects of AAS on bone and muscle strength, alterations in connective tissue structure induced by AAS therapy have been associated with a weakening of the tendons. Further evidence suggests that AAS lead to abnormal growth or development dysplasia of collagen fibrils, and resulting decrease in overall tendon strength 8.
The risk of triceps tendon rupture, a relatively uncommon injury, is increased with AAS use 9. This problem is often seen with Winstrol a. Stanozolol usage, and is more pronounced in athletes who participate in sports that require hard starts and stops such as track runners and baseball players. Both recreational users and patients receiving AAS therapy often experience fluctuations in lipid profiles. At study completion, the subjects taking AAS had lower high density lipoprotein HDL, the good kind cholesterol and elevated concentrations of low density lipoprotein LDL, the bad kind.
Similarly, weekly administration of Nandrolone Decanoate a. Simply put, everything we digest passes through the liver twice, and thus contributes to overall liver toxicity. This is one of the reasons AAS users prefer to inject intramuscularly into the muscle , a method that averts the first liver pass by going directly into the bloodstream.
The first liver pass filters nutrients in preparation for the bloodstream, while the second serves as a maintenance blood cleansing for continued service.
Oral steroids, known as 17aas, have been modified at the 17th position hence the nickname in order to survive the first liver pass in tact. This allows for their properties to function as intended once inside the bloodstream 12, 13, Similarly, Testosterone T when compared to other AAS tends to have less of an effect on lipid profiles. Try to commit this liver information to memory for later, when we more fully discuss its system.
Most people are aware of the fact that we study certain animals, mostly monkeys and mice, because of our distinct physiological similarities.
Well, T has been known to induce hypertension in animals for more than 6 decades Animal studies have shown that AAS increase water and inhibits the conversion mechanism that makes corticosterone, resulting in hypertension in rats Why does this matter to us?
Because fluid retention, a traditional AAS side effect, is a known contributing factor to hypertension. Autoradiographic a kind of X-Ray and biochemical analyses cell sample examinations of the hearts of female rhesus monkeys and baboons indicate that arterial and ventricular heart cells contain androgen receptors, a primary absorption site for AAS.
The presence of this receptor suggests that sex steroid hormones may affect heart function directly, and may explain some of the peculiar differences in heart disease between men and women Cardiomegaly an enlarged heart has been reported in the preclinical studies of AAS 19, 20 , and electron microscopy an imaging technique that makes the picture larger and brighter shows disintegration and swelling of heart tissue when AAS are given in conjunction with physical training The risk of arteriosclerosis a progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries may also be increased with AAS use, as shown by an increase in aortic elastin and collagen content additional and potentially obstructive materials within heart valves with T administration to male rats.
Another study of male athletes found statistically significant greater cardiovascular risk factors in AAS users than nonusers Hard evidence of cardiovascular morbidity death caused by heart or artery problems associated with AAS use, has been difficult to come by. Even under controlled, medically supervised conditions for patients undergoing therapeutic AAS treatment, there were 16 reported cases of morbid circulatory events death caused by heart or artery problems between and Remember, these were prescribed drugs and dosages, under the routinely monitored care of licensed, board certified physicians.
Would you care to venture odds for the personal user supervised by his source, a book he purchased, or some booming internet website? You only have one heart, and nooo-body wants to be placed on that waiting list! Studies have linked various abnormal liver function tests with the use of AAS 24, 25, Jaundice the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes frequently due to liver problems occasionally occurs in patients with a previously normal functioning liver due to hepatotoxicity chemically caused liver toxicity or damage.
Cholestatic hepatitis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum the central of the three divisions of the small intestine has also been reported with the use of 17aas If jaundice occurs, it generally develops after months of therapy or in AAS users on higher dosages or longer cycles of harsh orals like Dianabol Methandrostenolone or Andriol Testosterone Undecanoate.
In the majority of the patients, there is an elevation in transaminases important enzymes in the production of various amino acids , with levels normalizing after a few weeks of discontinuation In athletes, particular care should be exercised when interpreting liver function tests, because the breakdown of skeletal muscle during intense training can also result in elevated transaminases.
For this reason liver values should not be the sole determinant of AAS abuse Peliosis hepatis a disorder in which multiple blood-filled cystic spaces randomly ravage the liver has also been reported with the use of AAS 30, 31, 32, Lastly, there have been isolated reports of AAS use resulting in carcinomas any spreading cancer that arises from epithelial or compound layers of cells, that invades surrounding tissues and organs of the liver 34, 35, 36, The effects of T on human aggression are controversial.
Anecdotal evidence supports the claim that AAS use results in a typical "roid rage" phenomenon, during which athletes experience an increase in aggression and irritability.
The scientific validity of this assertion is questionable in consideration of the fact that virtually all evidence supporting this behavior is based on either case reports or correlational studies as byproducts of studies that sought other findings However, a few well-controlled studies have demonstrated an association between AAS use and feelings of aggression, alertness, irritability, anxiety, suspiciousness, and other mood extremes 43, 44, Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids that promotes muscle growth.
The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools.
For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program 48, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League have banned the use of steroids by athletes, both because of their potentially dangerous side effects and because they give the user an unfair competitive advantage.
The IOC and professional sports leagues use urine testing to detect steroid use both in and out of competition 48, Association Against Steroid Abuse www. Do Kid's Really Use Steroids?
Here are some of the systems that AAS use directly impacts: Corporate Contact Us Site Map.