In addition to their pleasing scents, aromatherapy essential oils have diverse Fir, Geranium, Ginger, Juniper Berry, Lavender, Lemongrass, Marjoram, Niaouli, Niaouli, Patchouli, Pine, Ravensara, Rosemary, Rose, Spruce, Tea Tree, Thyme Cedarwood, Cinnamon, Cypress, Helichrysum, Fir, Frankincense, Geranium. Atlas Cedarwood Essential Oil is extracted by steam distillation from the wood, with cedarwood, ginger, lavender, lavandin, lemon, marjoram, peppermint, pine, . Petitgrain Essential Oil is derived by steam distillation from the leaves and. German Chamomile, Cedarwood, Cypress, Frankincense, Juniper,. Lavender, Lemon, Myrtle, Petitgrain, Pine, Rosemary, Sandalwood,. Ylang Ylang, Vetiver.
PINE, CEDARWOOD Oils LAVENDER, and NIAOULI,
Geranium Egypt Geranuim Ess. Oil - Pelargonium Graveolens also known as Rose Geranium Is a greenish-olive liquid that has a rosy sweet minty, heavy scent.
It blends well with basil, bergamot, carrot seed, jasmine, lavender and rose. Is non-toxic, non-irritant and generally non-sensitizing. Is great in skin care, circulation, respiratory system and nervous system. Ginger China Zingiber Officinale has a spicy, woody, warm fragrence witha hint of lemon.
Blends well with cajeput, cinnamon, eucalyptus, frakincense, geranium, orange and verbena. It blends well with bergamot, cedarwood, frakincense and lavender. Juniper Berry India Juniperus Indica: Juniper Berry has a refreshing and slightly woody aroma. It blends well with bergamot, cypress, frankincense and sandalwood. Lavender Lavender has a sedative action on the heart, assists in bringing down high blood pressure, relieves insomnia and muscular spasms and rheumatic pains. It blends well with chamomile, eucalyptus, lavender and rose.
Lemongrass Guatemala Cymbopogon Citratus, steamed distilled, Part used: It blends well with cedarwood, basil, lavender, neroli and tea tree. Lime Mexico Citrus Aurantifolia has a sharp, bittersweet aroma. It blends well with bergamot, geranium, lavender, rose and ylang ylang.
Mandarin Italy Citrus Reticulata - The mandarin tree is a member of the orange family. The pure essential oil comes from the outer peel of the mandarin. The mandarin peel is pressed, and from it comes the flowery, sweet aroma scent associated with the oil. This oil is believed to improve mood and "relieve anxiety". The oil is really a happy oil, as the smell of the oil gives you the feeling of cleanliness.
It is safe for all ages, and children especially enjoy the aroma of the oil. Marjoram Spain Origanium Marjorana has a warm, penetrating and slightly spicy aroma. It blends well with bergamot, cedarwood, orange and rosewood. Myrrh Somalia Commiphora Myrrha: Has a smoky and slightly musky aroma. Madagascar, Steam distilled, part used is the leaf. It has a slightly sweet, fresh, camphoraceous odour. It blends well with cedarwood, citrus, pine, florals and vetiver. Niaouli is a typical memeber of the Tea Tree group of oils.
Nutmeg Indonesia Myristica Fragrans is a clear essential oil with a spicy, warm and nutty odor. One drop of Nutmeg with drops of Orange is wonderfull for the home. It blends well with citrus oils. It blends well with cinnamon, coriander, clove, frankincense, jasmine, lavender and rose.
Oregano Spain Origanum Vulgare - Wildcrafted-steam distilled. Oregano, Wild has a warm, spicy-herbaceous, camphoraceous aroma. It blends well with Lavender, pine, camphor, rosemary and cedar wood.
Oregano essential oil has antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiseptic properties. For external use, oregano essential oil is valued as a strong analgesic and antirheumatic agent. Is a skin irritant, mucous membrane irritant. Palmarosa has a sweet floral, rosy, geranium-like scent. It blends well with geranium, rose, sandalwood, cedarwood and floral oils.
Patchouli Pogostemon Patchouly has a strong, earthy fragrance that is sweet and spicy. Peppermint China Mentha Piperita sharp mentol fragrance. It blends well with cedarwood, cypress, lavender and pine. Petitgrain Paraguay Citrus aurantium. Steam Distilled, Part Used: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing, non-phototoxic.
Pine Needle Bulgaria Pinus Silvertis has a fresh, forest aroma. It blends well with decarwood, clove, myrtle and niaouli. Rosemary Spain Rosmarinus Officinalis has a refreshing herbal fragrance.
It blends well with basil, cedarwood, frakincense, ginger, grapefruit, orange and peppermint. Rosewood Brazil Aniba Rosaeodora aka: Bois de Rose Wildcrafted-Steamed Distilled. Rosewood has a light sweet, woody, floral and slightly spicy aroma. It blends well with most oils especially citrus oils. Sage Dalmatian Yugoslavia Salvia Officinalis. Spicy, sharp, very herbaceous. The Dalmatian Sage is considered the superior Sage variety.
It is an evergreen with white flowers. The bark is the part of the plant which produces the resin which makes Sandalwood Amyris. It blends well with basil, grapefruit and rosemary. Spruce has a fresh pine, and bitter orange peel aroma. Blends well with basil, bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, neroli, orange and rose. Tea Tree has a fresh and sanitary, yet rather pungent aroma. It blends well with cinnamon, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, ginger, lavender and thyme.
This oil is unusual in that it is active against all 3 organisms: Bacterial, fungal and viral. Non-toxic, Non-irritant, possible sensitization in some individuals.
Thuja Essential oil has been used in many medicinal remedies, in incense burning, as a natural bug repellent,and in cleaning products. This oil should not be used if Pregnant. People with Epilepsy should avoid. Although numerous studies have proven efficacy of tea tree oil, the problem with a few of the studies is that these were compared to a placebo, which is expected to display poor activity.
Although these studies demonstrate some antiviral activity, other viral pathogens e. Plants used for therapeutic purposes are normally assumed to be safe and free of toxicity. This misconception is mainly due to the long-term usage of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases based on basic knowledge accumulated and shared from generation to generation over many centuries.
However, scientific studies and reports have highlighted the toxic effects of essential oils used to treat skin ailments, which are known to produce adverse effects such as allergic contact dermatitis, skin irritation, or photosensitization [ ]. Phenols and aldehyde containing oils may often cause irritation [ ].
Furanocoumarin containing essential oils such as C. The evidence based review on botanicals in dermatology by Reuter et al. Mentha piperita oil has been reported to cause dermal irritation [ ].
There have also been a few case reports on L. Two additional studies tested the M. However, considering that patch tests exaggerate real-world product use [ , ], they do not necessarily give a good indication of products containing the essential oils.
This is evident in the discussed clinical trials using M. Several additional reports exist reporting contact dermatitis and one systemic hypersensitivity reaction, from the use of M.
As the prospective use of these essential oils may be for topical application, it is necessary to test toxicity against skin fibroblasts and human skin cell lines F [ ]. Backhousia citriodora oil at a concentration of 1. Thymus quinquecostatus , w hen tested against fibroblast cells for cytotoxicity, showed low cytotoxicity at concentrations below Mentha piperita is one of the most popularly used essential oils [ ]; however, there have been reports that M.
A review by Reichling et al. Of all the skin pathogens studied, dermatophytes were found to be the most sensitive to essential oil inhibition, followed by the yeast C. The most frequently studied organisms are E. However, less attention has been paid to pathogens such as S. The reason for this may be due to the difficulty in performing such studies on fastidious pathogens and the lack of a perceived threat. Furthermore, many of these pathogens are slow growing and, combined with the volatile nature of oils, may prove difficult in retaining the oil with the pathogen during the incubation period.
Where possible, resistant strains should be included in essential oil studies, along with the reference strain [ 56 , ]. Antiviral studies should extend to the neglected viruses.
These should also report on which part of the cycle the inhibition occurred. The focus should be directed towards the aromatherapeutic recommendation of the essential oil and the responsible pathogens connected to the type of infection, together with the inclusion of the microorganism strain number, the solvent, essential oil composition, and the reason for testing.
This is especially relevant for combination studies where it is ill advised to just randomly test different combinations. Regardless of the frequency of the therapeutic claims made for essential oils and the proven in vitro activity, most evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of aromatherapy has been published in books about aromatherapy and not in peer-reviewed journals.
A few clinical trials have emerged, but their results are rarely confirmed completely to substantiate essential oil effectiveness. More rigorous clinical trials would establish confidence from the medical professionals [ ].
Besides the antimicrobial activities, toxicity studies are also recommended using skin fibroblasts for sensitivity, as the use is topical. The toxicological effects of essential oils are important facets that need to be addressed. Discernment also needs to be applied as certain sensitivity studies may have been done on rabbit skin; however, human skin has been found to be more sensitive to irritants [ ].
Further essential oil combinations need to be studied, along with the reason for the combination selection. Whether the interaction is synergistic, additive, indifferent, or antagonistic, each interaction is a valuable result. If antagonism is not reported, it will not be known to avoid those combinations, which in turn will result in their continuous use, which may eventually lead to resistance to the essential oils themselves.
Including synergistic results will allow for these essential oil combinations to be used more frequently in practice.
The inclusion of additive and indifferent interactions is also vital in order to report essential oil combinations already studied. This will prevent unnecessary duplication of combination research and confirm essential oil combinations that have useful antimicrobial activity.
This research will provide an insight into the understanding of these combinations which could allow for newer directives for integrating essential oils into mainstream medicine. Although essential oil combinations with other essential oils and with antimicrobials have started gaining some attention, there is still a gap in the research with regard to carrier oils. Essential oils are seldom used directly on the skin because direct use onto the skin can cause irritation [ 26 , 38 ].
Therefore, essential oils are blended with carrier oils before they are applied to the skin. This raises the question as to whether or not the carrier oils influence the overall antimicrobial activity of the essential oils.
They found better effects in hydrophilic bases than in lipophilic bases. This study confirmed that the base may have an influence on the antimicrobial activity; however, carrier oils in combination have to the best of our knowledge not been studied further. Essential oils, such as M. This in itself can cause resistance. Therefore, although essential oils are showing promise, the use of essential oils in subinhibitory concentrations in cosmetics and other dermatological formulations may weaken the efficacies of the essential oils as antiseptics, as was shown by Nelson [ ].
This highlights the need to insure that there is sufficient evidence supporting aromatherapeutic combinations not only for therapeutics, but also in commercial products. Resistant strains such as P. For viral studies, one needs to consider that genuine antiviral potential is seen for those essential oils that display activity after absorption into the host cell's nucleus because this is where viral DNA replicates by using viral DNA polymerase [ 30 ].
Clinical trial and ex vivo studies should consider regular essential oil dosing, instead of once daily, or every several days, application.
According to the aromatherapeutic literature, essential oils are generally applied two to three times a day. The reason may be due to the volatile nature resulting in essential oil evaporation.
Thus, in order to give credit to essential oil use, application studies should consider timed dosages. However, many other oils have shown better antimicrobial activity. It is time essential oil researchers give just as much attention to oils such as C. The authors declare no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online May 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Jul 21; Accepted Oct 9. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Introduction The skin is the body's largest mechanical barrier against the external environment and invasion by microorganisms.
Open in a separate window. Summary of categorised dermatological conditions in which essential oils are used. Table 1 Essential oils used in dermatology. Materials and Methods 2. Inclusion Criteria In order to effectively understand the possible implications and potential of essential oils, the inclusion criteria were broad, especially with this being the first review to collate this amount of scientific evidence with the aromatherapeutic literature.
Inclusion criteria included the following: Type of in vitro studies for bacterial and fungal pathogens by means of the microdilution assay, macrodilution assay, or the agar dilution assay. Exclusion Criteria Papers or pieces of information were excluded for the following reasons: Lack of accessibility to the publication. Description of Studies After the initial database search, reports were screened. Chemical Analysis Essential oils are complex organic carbon containing chemical entities, which are generally made up of hundreds of organic chemical compounds in combination that are responsible for the essential oil's many characteristic properties.
Antimicrobial Investigations Several methods exist that may be employed for antimicrobial analysis, with two of the most popular methods being the diffusion and the dilution methods [ 56 — 59 ]. Diffusion Method There are two types of diffusion assays. Dilution Methods The dilution assays are reliable, widely accepted, and promising methods for determining an organism's susceptibility to inhibitors.
The Time-Kill Method The time-kill or death kinetic method is a labour intensive assay used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the antimicrobial and the bactericidal activity [ 82 ].
Summary of Methods The variation in essential oil test methods makes it difficult to directly compare results [ 24 , 58 ]. Pathogenesis of Wounds and Skin Infections and the Use of Essential Oils The pathogenesis of the different infections that are frequently encountered in wounds and skin infections is presented in Table 2.
Table 2 Pathogens responsible for infectious skin diseases. Skin disease Anatomical structure affected by infection Responsible pathogens Reference Bacterial infections Abscesses Skin and subcutaneous tissue Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-resistant S. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive bacterium that can cause anything from local skin infections to fatal deep tissue infections.
Table 3 Essential oil studies against S. Pathogens Involved in Acne Pathogens associated with acne include Propionibacterium acnes , Propionibacterium granulosum , and Staphylococcus epidermidis [ — ]. Table 4 Antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils against pathogens associated with acne. Table 5 Essential oil studies showing efficacy against Gram-negative pathogens associated with skin infections. NI trans -Caryophyllene Other Bacterial Pathogens Brevibacterium spp.
Table 6 Essential oil studies showing efficacy against other bacterial skin pathogens. Yeasts Yeasts may act as opportunistic pathogens and can result in infection if presented with the opportunity, the most common pathogen being Candida albicans. Table 7 Essential oils demonstrating noteworthy antimicrobial efficacy against C. Dermatophytes Infection with these organisms results in dermatophytosis, which affects the skin, nails, or hair [ , , ].
Table 8 Essential oils against dermatophytes and other yeasts. Citrus bergamia bergamot MIC T. Thymus serpyllum thyme MIC M. Essential Oil Combinations Other than the use of oils within carrier oils, most essential oils are used in blends or combinations of two or more oils [ 32 ].
Essential Oils in Combination with Other Essential Oils Although combinations are frequently mentioned in aromatherapy to treat skin ailments, only a handful of studies documenting essential oil combinations were found against skin pathogens Table 9.
Table 9 Essential oil with essential oil combinations against skin pathogens. Essential Oils in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobials In an effort to prevent resistance and increase antimicrobial efficacy against multidrug-resistant bacteria, the combination of essential oils with antibiotics has been investigated [ , — ]. Table 10 Essential oil studies demonstrating synergistic interactions in combination with conventional antimicrobials. I [ ] Mentha piperita peppermint E.
I [ ] Maquindox Origanum vulgare oregano E. I [ ] Norfloxacin Pelargonium graveolens geranium E. Antiviral Studies Viral infections are a worldwide threat, firstly due to the lack of effective treatments available and secondly due to resistance [ ]. Table 11 Essential oil studies showing efficacy against viral pathogens associated with skin infections. Essential Oil Toxicity Plants used for therapeutic purposes are normally assumed to be safe and free of toxicity.
Conclusion Of all the skin pathogens studied, dermatophytes were found to be the most sensitive to essential oil inhibition, followed by the yeast C.
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Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils extracted from Korean endemic citrus species. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis.
The development of anti-acne products from Eucalyptus globulus and Psidium guajava oil. Journal of Health Research. Solid lipid microparticles SLM containing Juniper oil as anti-acne topical carriers: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology.
The antibacterial activity of clove essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes and its mechanism of action. Preliminary clinical tests on topical preparations of Ocimum gratissimum linn leaf essential oil for the treatment of acne vulgaris. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne. Medical Journal of Australia. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange Citrus sinensis and sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L essential oils.
Agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane. The potential of use basil and rosemary essential oils as effective antibacterial agents. Antibacterial properties of plant essential oils. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean aromatic plants. Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity and chemical constitutions of Ziziphora clinopodioides.
Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils and supercritical CO 2 extracts of Apium nodiflorum L. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to essential oils and antibiotics after exposure to oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Antimicrobial potential of the Ethiopian Thymus schimperi essential oil in comparison with others against certain fungal and bacterial species.
Antibacterial potential assessment of Jasmine essential oil against E. Susceptibility of Pseudomonads to Melaleuca alternifolia tea tree oil and components. In-vitro activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia against Streptococcus spp. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia tea tree oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp. Potential of plant oils as inhibitors of Candida albicans growth. Potentiation of antifungal activity of amphotericin B by essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia.
The influence of chemical composition of commercial lemon essential oils on the growth of Candida strains. Action of Coriandrum sativum L. Essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. Chemical characterization and biological activity of essential oils from Daucus carota L. Antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils against dermatophyte, Aspergillus and Candida strains.
Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of Lavandula stoechas and Thymus herba-barona essential oils. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis l'her. Journal of Medical Microbiology.
In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts. In vitro synergic efficacy of the combination of Nystatin with the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Pelargonium graveolens against some Candida species. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L.
New compounds, chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil from Myrtus nivellei Batt. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Ocimum species. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. In vitro activity of essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum L.
Essential Oil Reference Guide
Essential Oils And Their Actions On The Systems Of The Body Antiseptic oils for sore throats, flu, colds etc. include cardamom, cedarwood, cinnamon hyssop, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, sweet marjoram, niaouli, pine. Petitgrain Lemongrass Juniper Berry, Geranium Ylang Ylang Lavender Neroli Rosewood, Petitgrain . Cedarwood, Clary Sage, Geranium, Lavender, Lemon Balm . Note: Middle Blends Well With: Lavender- orange- spice oils- pine- rose . In a massage, pine needle oil can act as a tonic for the nervous system, adrenal It blends well with cedarwood, rosemary, tea tree, sage, lavender, juniper.