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    It has been traditionally used as an antimicrobial and to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Whether olive leaf , a natural antioxidant, influences the gastric defense mechanism and exhibits gastroprotection against experimentally-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins in olive leaf extract OLE were determined.

    Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified oleuropein, caffeic acid, luteolin, luteolinO-glucoside, apigeninO-glucoside, quercetin, and chryseriol. Furthermore, the protective activity of the OLE in gastric mucosal injury induced by a corrosive concentration of ethanol was investigated.

    In relation to the control group, pretreatment with OLE 40, 80 and mg kg-1 significantly p Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive. Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids.

    Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world.

    The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild Olea ferruginea and edible Olea europaea olive leaf crude extracts , crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains.

    However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used.

    Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. The traditional Mediterranean diet MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers.

    The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content.

    There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers.

    Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers.

    Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract on amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat. Amikacin is an important antibiotic, and its use is limited because of the induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, search for natural and synthetic agents that can moderate amikacin toxicity never stopped. The present study aims to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract against the amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.

    Animals were fasted and sacrificed. Serum was used for biochemical analysis and kidneys for histopathology. Serum uric acid was reduced in AK by The serum triglyceride was decreased by Amikacin did not cause dyslipidemia but reduced serum uric acid. Several studies suggest that renal ischemia reperfusion RIR can induce acute kidney injury.

    Liver diseases and neurological disorders related to kidney injury is a common clinical problem. Olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. They have better antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging. In this study 50 male rats were allocated randomly into 5 groups: Other animals received 0. Also, MDA level in renal tissue of treated groups was significantly lower than ischemia-reperfusion groups p.

    Full Text Available Oleuropein OE, the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract , is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol HT and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT.

    The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: The experimental result was From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase.

    The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods.

    Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks. Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract OLE on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil EVO , white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity were considered.

    The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants.

    Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR i. The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used.

    Compare the amount of phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of five varieties of Iranian olive leaf hydroalcholic extract. Olive leaf extract can be used as a rich source of the polyphenolic antioxidant. The present study aimed to compare the amount of phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of five varieties of Iranian olive leaf hydro alcholic extract.

    Antioxidant activity of the olive leaves extract was evaluated by radical scavenging DPPH method and vitamin C applied as standard. The total phenol and flavonoid content were different in five varieties of olive leaf extract.

    The highest level of total phenol and flavonoids were reported The antioxidant activity was different in all vareity. The high relationship was found between the total phenol and antioxidant activity in extracts.

    Antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid content were different in each plant extract and a high correlation was found between total phenol and Antioxidant activity. Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree Olea europaea L. Programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff induced by several molecules present in olive leaf extracts.

    Full Text Available Therapy against Acanthamoeba infections such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis GAE and Acanthamoeba Keratitis AK, remains as an issue to be solved due to the existence of a cyst stage which is highly resistant to most chemical and physical agents.

    Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the main molecules which are present in OLE and secondly to study their mechanism of action in Acanthamoeba. Among the tested molecules, the observed activities ranged from an IC50 of 6. After that, elucidation of the mechanism of action of these molecules was evaluated by the detection of changes in the phosphatidylserine PS exposure, the permeability of the plasma membrane, the mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP levels in the treated cells.

    Vanillic, syringic and ursolic acids induced the higher permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Therefore, all the molecules tested in this study could be considered as a future therapeutic alternative against Acanthamoeba spp. Further studies are needed in order to establish the true potential of these molecules against these emerging opportunistic pathogenic protozoa. Selective ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein to its aglycon in olive Olea europaea L.

    Hydrolysis of oleuropein, the main phenol in olive Olea europaea L. Acceleration of the enzymatic hydrolysis by ultrasound US was studied using a Box-Behnken design duty cycle, amplitude, cycle time and an oleuropein standard, and the optimum US conditions for achieving maximum yield of oleuropein aglycon were 0.

    The method was applied to obtain oleuropein aglycon from commercial and laboratory extracts from olive leaves, which may have a pharmacological use as deduced by its healthy properties.

    The kinetics of the US-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was monitored by analysis of the target compounds using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Effect of the extraction solvent on the oleuropein content and antioxidant properties of olive leaf cv. Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka extracts.

    Full Text Available In the last few decades numerous studies have proved that an olive leaf is a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds, mainly oleuropein and its derivatives.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the extraction solvent on the phenolic and oleuropein content in the leaf extracts of Dalmatian autochthonic olive cultivars: Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was determined using FRAP method and by metal chelating activity evaluation. The recovery obtained using methanol and ethanol The highest share of total phenols and oleuropein was detected in ethanolic extract of Lastovka, while almost two-fold lower amounts were obtained using water extracts , both hot water and room temperature water.

    All tested extracts provided good chelating activity probably due to the high concentrations of oleuropein but also the presence of other compounds with catechol structure, which is the most important structural feature of strong chelating activity. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that the extraction of polyphenols from olive leaves, especially from Lastovka cultivar, could present an interesting means of increasing the value of this cheap plant material that often remains unused after the harvest.

    Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract. Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree Olea europaea leaves at levels of and mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil.

    Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract , among which oleuropein predominated 1. All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

    Chetoui olive leaf extracts: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the solvent type on the extraction of phenolics and the antioxidant properties of the extracts obtained from Chetoui olive leaves. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: Total phenols and total flavonoids were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. Effect of olive leaf , Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts compared with metronidazole in vitro.

    Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects.

    In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf , Satureja khuzestanica , and Allium sativum on G. The examinations demonstrated that olive leaf extract had the most fatality rate on G. With respect to higher fatality effect of olive leaf and S.

    The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the olive leaf extracts OLEs ranged from Our results revealed that extracting solvents have a significant influence on the antioxidant properties of olive leaves and that a methanol mixture is recommended for extracts with high levels of flavonoids and important antioxidant activities. Functional foods in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: The functional foods olive leaf extract , turmeric, and fenugreek are commonly used in traditional medicine systems to manage diabetes.

    All three of these functional foods have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as specific insulin sensitizing qualities. In vitro studies offer proof of mechanism, and animal studies consistently show treatment efficacy for all three foods. The few human studies that have been conducted, however, use surrogate rather than clinical endpoints.

    The establishment of these and other functional foods as evidence based interventions for diabetes requires well designed, adequately powered, and randomized controlled pivotal trials with clinical endpoints.

    Effects of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. Full Text Available The paper investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and antioxidant capacity of Chimonanthus nitens Oliv. Various physiological indexes in diabetic model mice were well improved especially by oral administration of high dose of COE; the results were listed as follows.

    Furthermore, pancreas islets and liver in diabetic model mice showed some extend of improvement in morphology and function after 4 weeks of COE treatment. In consequence, COE was advantageous to regulate glycolipid metabolism and elevate antioxidant capacity in diabetic model mice.

    Thus, the present study will provide a scientific evidence for the use of COE in the management of diabetes and its related complications. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: After 5 days of CDDP treatment, body and testicular weights, histopathological alteration, and serum male sex hormone levels were determined.

    In addition to the biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in the testes, CDDP caused the disorganization of germinal epithelium and apoptosis by inducing Bax and inhibiting Bcl-2 protein expression. OLE treatment markedly attenuated both biochemical and histopathological changes. Effects of high dose olive leaf extract on haemodynamic and oxidative stress parameters in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive activity of natural antioxidant, olive leaf extract OLE is known, but its influence on cardiovascular system when administered in a high dose has not been investigated yet. Our aim was to determine the acute effects of excessive intake of standardized OLE on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative status in both spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar rats. Systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff, pneumatic pulse detector, before, 60 and minutes after intragastric OLE administration.

    Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase SOD and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes, as well as lipid peroxidation in plasma pTBARS were measured at the same time points, spectrophotometrically. Excessive oral intake of OLE induced moderate hypotensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats only, suggesting absence of harmful haemodynamic effects after oral overdose in both rats strain.

    However, its prooxidative role when given in high dose in hypertensive organism should not be neglected. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to olive leaf Olea europaea L. The food that is the subject of the health claim, olive leaf water extract standardised by its content of oleuropein, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, an increase One human intervention study showed an increase in glucose tolerance without disproportionate increase in insulin concentrations after daily consumption of the olive leaf Full Text Available Many studies reported that air pollution particulate matter PM exposure was associated with myocardial infarction MI.

    Acrolein representing the unsaturated aldehydes, the main component of PM, derives from the incomplete combustion of wood, plastic, fossil fuels and the main constitute of cigarette smoking. However, the effect of acrolein on MI remains not that clear. In the current study, the effect of acrolein-exacerbated MI was investigated. The apoptosis marker, Bax, was also higher while the anti-apoptosis indicator, Bcl2 expression was lower both at protein and mRNA levels in the combination group.

    Also, the acrolein-protein adducts and myocardial pathological damage increased in the combination of acrolein and ISO relative to the ISO treatment. Besides, cardiac parameters, ejection fraction EF and fractional shortening FS were reduced more significantly when acrolein was added than in ISO treatment.

    Interestingly, all the changes were able to be ameliorated by OLE. Protective effect of dry olive leaf extract in adrenaline induced DNA damage evaluated using in vitro comet assay with human peripheral leukocytes. Excessive release of stress hormone adrenaline is accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species which may cause disruption of DNA integrity leading to cancer and age-related disorders.

    Phenolic-rich plant product dry olive leaf extract DOLE is known to modulate effects of various oxidants in human cells. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 6 healthy subjects were treated in vitro with three final concentrations of DOLE 0. Compared to cells exposed only to adrenaline, DOLE displayed significant reduction Padrenaline genotoxicity.

    Results indicate genoprotective and antioxidant properties in dry olive leaf extract , strongly supporting further explorations of its underlying mechanisms of action. Antimicrobial olive leaf gelatin films for enhancing the quality of cold smoked salmon. H7 and Salmonella enterica using agar diffusion test Full Text Available A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction CPE was developed using Tween The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates salting-out and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation.

    The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolinO-glucoside, verbascoside and apigeninO-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase Vs showed higher thermal stability activation energy Ea The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl method.

    Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion.

    For many centuries olive Olea europaea leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. The gastroprotective mechanism of OLE involved the promotion of enzymatic and nonenzymatic molecules superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione reduced form , promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 Nrf2 mRNA expression, halting lipid peroxidation and preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide.

    Indeed, OLE could potentially be useful as a natural therapy for gastritis. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf Olea europaea L to human health. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves Olea europaea L. To review the scientific literature about the benefits of the polyphenols of olive leaves to human health.

    There were identified 92 articles, but only 38 related to the objectives of the study and 9 articles cited in the works were included due to their relevance. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, especially the oleuropein, are associated to antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activity. Furthermore, studies associate the oleuropein to an anti-inflammatory effect in trauma of the bone marrow and as a support in the treatment of obesity.

    Thermal stability of oils added with avocado Persea americana cv. Hass or olive Olea europaea cv. Arbequina leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Effect of the addition of avocado Persea americana cv. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Anti-adhesion activity of thyme Thymus vulgaris L. In order to survive in food-processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials.

    Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract TE , thyme post-hydrodistillation residue TE-R , and olive leaf extract OE using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE-R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and oleuroside.

    On the other hand, C. Our findings suggest that TE, the agro-food waste material TE-R, and the by-product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion.

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves.

    The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves.

    The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling.

    Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts.

    Powdered, dried olive Olea europaea cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation.

    The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection , optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation.

    Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure as in a three-phase centrifugation system was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors.

    Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

    Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process. Full Text Available Several batches of approx. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.

    A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon. The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions.

    The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive yellow and local oil-grade in Shiraz and Kazeroon The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive yellow The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens.

    A total of Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model.

    As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol: The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions min, solvent to sample ratio 5: Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction SFE extracts , which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E.

    Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of ppm.

    Olive tree Olea europaea L. Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. In this review article, olive tree Olea europaea L. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field.

    Characterisation and epitypification of Pseudocercospora cladosporioides, the causal organism of Cercospora leaf spot of olives. Cercospora leaf spot of olives is a serious defoliating disease attributed to Pseudocercospora cladosporioides. Although the disease is well distributed throughout olive growing regions of the world, its epidemiology and population structure remains unknown.

    The aim of this study was to establish. Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine.

    Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation.

    For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia.

    Completely randomized design was applied. Regarding other elements studied P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivars grown commercially in Palestine include Arbequino, Frantoio and?

    Nabali Mohassan was the most affected susceptible while Barouni was most resistant. The assessment method may be useful to screen olive cultivars for OLS resistance in Palestine. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction. The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater.

    However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue olive pulp and fragmented stones were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol.

    The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia. Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified.

    The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention. An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood Olea europaea L.

    Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties. Response surface methodology RSM and artificial neural networks ANN were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content TPC and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf Olea europaea extracts , obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction SFMAE.

    Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts , obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein 0. Full Text Available Response surface methodology RSM and artificial neural networks ANN were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content TPC and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf Olea europaea extracts , obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction SFMAE.

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content. The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months.

    During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly and 3-fold higher than control oils.

    These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive Olea europaea and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi Diptera: The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi , is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive Olea europaea L.

    A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. The green leaf volatiles GLVs Z hexenol and Z hexenol acetate were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene.

    The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference.

    Nano-encapsulation of olive leaf phenolic compounds through WPC-pectin complexes and evaluating their release rate.

    The lowest release of phenolics observed in multiple emulsions of WPC-pectin. The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate.

    After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.

    Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities. Full Text Available Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts OWWE and the olive cake extracts OCE.

    Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction.

    The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

    Antioxidant capacity, insecticidal ability and heat-oxidation stability of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extract. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of process factors such as ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature on the extraction yield and the bioactive contents of Tagetes lemmonii leaf extracts using response surface methodology RSM.

    ANOVA results showed that the response variables were affected by the ethanol concentration to a very significant degree and by extraction temperature to a lesser degree. The results from the toxicity assay demonstrate that the extract obtained from the leaves of Tagetes lemmonii was an effective insect toxin against Tribolium castaneum.

    The radical scavenging activity and p-anisidine test results of olive oil spiked with different concentrations of leaf extract showed that the phenolic compounds can retard lipid oxidation. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste. Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil.

    During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen.

    Ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution had marked fungicidal effect against clinical dermatophytic fungal isolates; Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Microsporium gypseum at an inoculum level of 4. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part Olive pomace polar lipid PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-snacetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL.

    Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor.

    Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts. The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna Cerrado environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R.

    The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein 1 and - -catechin 2 as potential allelochemicals.

    Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol.

    In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

    The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: Composition and bioactivity of the resulting extracts were compared. In experiments on Caco-2 cells, the leaf extracts promoted the recovery of cell membrane barrier at different minimum effective concentrations. The high specificity of W. Olive leaf down-regulates the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Type 1 diabetes is an endocrinologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled glucose regulation and oxidative stress. Olive leaves have been studied extensively for their antioxidant activity and capacity to improve immune function. We hypothesized that olive leaf powder supplementation will be effective in inhibiting the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin STZ -induced diabetic mice. Mice were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels were increased in the D group but decreased in all the experimental groups.

    Th2 cytokine levels were increased in all olive leaf -supplemented groups compared with those in the D group. These results indicate a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that olive leaves have the potential to provide therapeutic inhibition of diabetic complications.

    Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive. Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation SSF , and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride and yeasts Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum , and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated.

    The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The co-culture combination of A. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry.

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil.

    An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data.

    Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake. Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages.

    The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.

    Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane. Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil.

    The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'.

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing.

    In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category. Iridoids from leaf extract of Genipa americana. Two iridoids, 1-hydroxy hydroxymethyl-1,4aH,5H,7aH-cyclopenta[c]pyrancarbaldehyde 1, and iridoid 7- hydroxymethylmethoxy-1H,4aH,5H,7aH-cyclopenta[c]pyrancarbaldehyde 2 were isolated and identified in the leaf extract of G.

    Compounds 1 and 2 were identified for the first time in G. These substances were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques such as infrared, high resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C 1D; as well as 2D nuclear magnetic resonance. Moreover, the presence of flavonoids was detected by a preliminary analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens.

    As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus Fusarium spp. The effect of the neem leaf Azadirachta indica extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage.

    The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany Italy , by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces.

    Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes.

    The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives , but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples.

    These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil. Prophylactic effect of paw-paw leaf and bitter leaf extracts on the Bitter leaf BL extract had a high signifi- cant effect P Role of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii in Gastroprotection. Full Text Available Murraya koenigii leaves are regularly used in our diet and hence, our gastrointestinal tract is regularly exposed to this extract.

    Therefore the present study was focused on the evaluation of the Gastroprotective action of Murraya koenigii leaf extracts on Pancreas and Duodenum. Male albino mice gm were treated with Murraya koenigii leaf extracts Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous, against Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 induced toxic model for seven days, using two different dose concentrations.

    The hydroalcoholic extract proved to be more effective than the aqueous extract. Hence, Murraya koenigii leaf extracts have potent ameliorative action on the CCl4 induced toxicity in the duodenum and pancreas, manifesting potent gastroprotective activity. The present study has significant impact since the plant is used extensively in both cuisine and medication. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives ' carposphere are trapped.

    Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds.

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    Extraction is a common separation process for getting valuable substance from any material. Solvent usually liquid is needed for any type of extraction. However, there are also other solvents available. For example extraction by supercritical carbon dioxide - CO2. We currently offer two types of CBD hemp oil which differ not only in the manufacturing process but also in the content of cannabinoids.

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