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The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal- forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal- forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral- forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos.
Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes .
In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols SOA in varying conditions e. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer  and the UFH-TDMA ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer  methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions via physic-chemical properties at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions.
We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in. The newly -discovered Late Cretaceous igneous rocks in the Nuocang district: Products of ancient crust melting trigged by Neo-Tethyan slab rollback in the western Gangdese.
The newly discovered polymetallic Nuocang Pb-Zn skarn deposit is located in the southern Lhasa subterrane, western Gangdese, Tibet. The orebodies occur primarily at the contact zone between the Angjie Formation and the Linzizong volcanic rocks of Dianzhong Formation LDF that are dominated by basaltic andesitic tuff and rhyolite.
Zircon U-Pb dating for two granite porphyries yield ages of They have pronounced negative Eu anomalies mean 0. All these features suggest that they are the product of anatexis of ancient crustal materials heated by mantle-derived magma, the latter derived from Neo-Tethyan slab dehydration mechanisms.
Combined with the previous geochronological and geochemical data, we proposed that the Nuocang district of western Gangdese in the southern Lhasa subterrane contains an ancient block, and the igneous rocks here were triggered by the Neo-Tethyan slab rollback starting at 82 Ma. The western Gangdese contains more ancient continental crustal materials and Late Cretaceous-Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks and coeval intrusions than in the eastern Gangdese.
Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet. Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes.
Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout.
Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates.
Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere.
Those derived from mafic igneous rock gabbro frequently show erosion problems because of land use, which is aggravated by the mountainous relief and soil attributes.
This study evaluated the main pedogenic processes of soils formed from mafic igneous rock gabbro in a toposequence in Pinheiral RJ by characterizing physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological attributes. The profiles are located at different sections in the toposequence: The soil morphology of profiles P2, P3 and P4 is expressed by a brownish-red color, blocky structure with high to moderate development, clay films and clay loam to clay texture, with a textural B horizon.
P1 shows less development, with a shallow profile and the sequence of horizons A-C-Cr. The soils have a slightly low degree of weathering, identified by the presence of pyroxenes and feldspars in the sand fraction and montorillonite in the clay fraction; the sum of bases is from 15 to 24 cmolc kg-1; and cation exchange capacity CEC is from 12 to 22 cmolc kg A significant presence of clay skins was observed in the field and was confirmed by thin section analysis, which showed features such as argillans, ferriargillans and iron nodules.
Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is a first-line diagnostic method for screening the thrombus. During thrombus aging, the proportion of red blood cells RBCs in the thrombus decreases and therefore the signal intensity of B-scan can be used to detect the thrombus age. To avoid the effect of system gain on the measurements, this study proposed using the empirical mode decomposition EMD of ultrasound image as a strategy to classify newly formed and aged thrombi.
The results showed that the performance of using signal amplitude of B-scan to reflect the thrombus age depends on gain. However, the IER is less affected by the gain in discriminating between fresh and aged thrombi. In the future, ultrasound B-scan combined with the EMD may be used to identify the thrombus age for the establishment of thrombolytic treatment planning.
On the interaction of pure and impure supercritical CO2 with rock forming minerals in saline aquifers: An experimental geochemical approach. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the geochemical impact of pure and impure CO 2 on rock forming minerals of possible CO 2 storage reservoirs. This geochemical approach takes into account the incomplete purification of industrial captured CO 2 and the related effects during injection, and provides relevant data for long-term storage simulations of this specific greenhouse gas.
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions of supercritical CO 2 , brine and rock-forming mineral concentrates albite, microcline, kaolinite, biotite, muscovite, calcite, dolomite and anhydrite using a newly developed experimental setup. Experiments with mixtures of supercritical CO 2 These acids should be responsible for the general larger amount of cations dissolved from the mineral phases compared to experiments using pure CO 2.
For pure CO 2 a pH of around 4 was obtained using silicates and anhydrite, and 7—8 for carbonates. Dissolution of carbonates was observed after both pure and impure CO 2 experiments. Anhydrite was corroded by approximately 50 wt. Silicates do not exhibit visible alterations during all experiments but released an increasing amount of cations in the reaction fluid during experiments with impure CO 2.
Nonetheless, precipitated secondary carbonates could not be identified. Collection of data over the Boundary Canyon detachment fault BCDF facilitated measurement of numerous lithologies representing a contact between the relatively unmetamorphosed Grapevine Mountains allochthon and the metamorphosed core complex of the Funeral Mountains autochthon. These included quartz-rich sandstone, quartzite, conglomerate, and alluvium; muscovite-rich schist, siltstone, and slate; and carbonate-rich dolomite, limestone, and marble, ranging in age from late Precambrian to Quaternary.
Hyperspectral data were reduced in dimensionality and processed to statistically identify and map unique emissivity spectra endmembers.
Abrupt variations in image data emissivity amongst pelitic schists corresponded to amphibolite; these rocks represent gradation from greenschist- to amphibolite-metamorphic facies lithologies. Although the full potential of LWIR hyperspectral image data may not be fully utilized within this study area due to lack of measurable spectral distinction between rocks of similar bulk mineralogy, the high spectral resolution of the image data was useful in characterizing silicate- and carbonate-based sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in proximity to fault contacts, as well as for interpreting some mineral mixtures.
Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry. Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks.
Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers EDS integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter.
Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data. Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets.
A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz , comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected. Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of reference and test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions.
The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using. Trace element partitioning in rock forming minerals of co-genetic, subduction-related alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Ural Mountains, Russia.
The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopyroxene in a suite of co-genetic alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks from the Ural Mountains Russia were calculated.
The results give insights to the influence of the chemical composition of the parental melt on the partitioning behaviour of the REE. Nepheline-bearing, alkaline melanogabbros tilaites are assumed to represent the most fractionated products of the melt that formed the ultramafic cumulates in zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Ural Mountains.
Co-genetic with the latter is a suite of olivine gabbros, gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros formed from a tholeiitic parental melt. Negative anomalies for the HFSE along with low Nb and Ta contents and a positive Sr anomaly indicate a subduction related origin of all parental melts.
The nepheline gabbros consist predominantly of coarse-grained clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine grained clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, K-feldspar and nepheline with accessory apatite. The tholeiitic gabbros have equigranular to porphyric textures with phenocrysts of olivine, pyroxene and hornblende in a plagioclase rich matrix with olivine hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite.
These values are about two times higher than published data e. Evolved rocks like trachyte occur as minor components of many plume-related basaltic ocean islands e. Trachytes from Mauritius Indian Ocean suggest otherwise. Initial eNd values cluster at 4. Fractional crystallization models starting with a basaltic parent fail, because when plagioclase joins olivine in the crystallizing assemblage, residual liquids become depleted in Al2O3, produce no nepheline, and do not approach trachytic compositions.
Mauritian basalts and trachytes do not fall near the ends of known miscibility gaps, eliminating liquid immiscibility processes. A remaining possibility is that the trachytes represent direct, small-degree partial melts of fertile, perhaps metasomatized mantle. This is supported by the presence of trachytic glasses in many mantle xenoliths, and experimental results show that low-degree trachytic melts can be produced from mantle peridotites even under anhydrous conditions.
If some feldspar is left behind as a residual phase, this would account for the negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies observed in Mauritian trachytes. Two trachyte samples that are less depleted in these elements contain xenocrysts of anorthoclase, Al-rich cpx and Cl-rich kaersutite that are out of equilibrium with host trachyte magmas.
However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms , and they generally perform at floor on such tests. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-toyear-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test.
We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil.
Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay.
However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients. A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented.
The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles.
The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators. Activation of a remote 1-year old emotional memory interferes with the retrieval of a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.
The persistent intrusion of remote traumatic memories in people with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD may contribute to the impairment of their ongoing hippocampal and prefrontal cortical functioning. In the current work, we have developed a rodent analogue of the intrusive memory phenomenon. We studied the influence of the activation of a remote traumatic memory in rats on their ability to retrieve a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given inhibitory avoidance IA training, and then 24 h or 1, 6 or 12 months later, the same rats were trained to learn, and then remember across a min delay period, the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze RAWM.
When IA-trained rats spent the min delay period in the IA apparatus, they exhibited intact remote 1-year old memory of the shock experience. More importantly, activation of the rats' memory of the shock experience profoundly impaired their ability to retrieve the newly formed spatial memory of the hidden platform location in the RAWM.
Our finding that reactivation of a remote emotional memory exerted an intrusive effect on new spatial memory processing in rats provides a novel approach toward understanding how intrusive memories of traumatic experiences interfere with ongoing cognitive processing in people with PTSD. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock 's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed , and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks.
Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol Aug. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up.
This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before red and blue lines and after green line the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks.
As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.
Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock -anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station.
Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions.
Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing. Physical properties and rock physics models of sediment containing natural and laboratory- formed methane gas hydrate.
This paper presents results of shear strength and acoustic velocity p-wave measurements performed on: These measurements show that hydrate increases shear strength and p-wave velocity in natural and reconstituted samples.
The proportion of this increase depends on 1 the amount and distribution of hydrate present, 2 differences, in sediment properties, and 3 differences in test conditions. Stress-strain curves from the Mallik samples suggest that natural gas hydrate does not cement sediment grains. However, stress-strain curves from the Ottawa sand containing laboratory- formed gas hydrate do imply cementation is present. Acoustically, rock physics modeling shows that gas hydrate does not cement grains of natural Mackenzie Delta sediment.
Natural gas hydrates are best modeled as part of the sediment frame. This finding is in contrast with direct observations and results of Ottawa sand containing laboratory- formed hydrate, which was found to cement grains Waite et al.
It therefore appears that the microscopic distribution of gas hydrates in sediment, and hence the effect of gas hydrate on sediment physical properties, differs between natural deposits and laboratory- formed samples. This difference may possibly be caused by the location of water molecules that are available to form hydrate.
Models that use laboratory-derived properties to predict behavior of natural gas hydrate must account for these differences. Appearance of newly formed mRNA and rRNA as ribonucleoprotein-particles in the cytoplasmic subribosomal fraction of pea embryos.
At this time the radioactivity was associated with cytoplasmic structures heavier than 80S and RNP particles of S, S, S and S which are presumed to be free mRNP particles in plants. When the pulse-labeled embryos were incubated for a further 60 min in an isotope-free medium, the labeled 17S and 25S rRNA emerged in the cytoplasm, together with labeled heterodisperse and S RNAs. More radioactivity accumulated in the regions of the polysome, S and S particles.
The results of analysis of RNAs extracted from the whole cytoplasm, polysome or subribosomal fractions indicated that small subunits of newly formed ribosomes appear more rapidly in the cytoplasm than new large subunits, which accumulate for a while as free particles in the cytoplasm than are incorporated into polysomes.
The actinomycin treatment which caused preferential inhibition of rRNA synthesis reduced the accumulation of free, newly formed ribosome subunits and partially permitted detection of the presumed mRNP particles in the subribosomal region even after the chase treatment. Full Text Available Introduction: Parent materials as one of the main soil formation factors have a great impact on the concentration of heavy metals in the soil.
Heavy metals are released to the soil during weathering and pedogenic processes. Ultrabasic rocks are known as the potential natural source of heavy metals, especially Ni, Cr and Mn in the soil. Average concentrations of Ni and Cr in the soils are 84 and 34 mg kg-1, respectively; while, in soil derived from ultrabasic parent material, the concentration of these elements may reach up to mg kg Binaloud zone in northeastern composed of different geological materials.
There is a narrow band of ophiolitic rocks in this zone that located along Mashhad city. The geochemical behavior of ultrabsic rocks and the associated soil have been frequently studied mostly in humid regions. But, there are a few research works done in arid environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties and concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn in soils formed along a toposequence of ultrabasic rocks in western Mashhad.
The study area is located in the hilly land landscape of Binaloud zone in the Western part of Mashhad. Mean annual precipitation and temperature is mm and Soil temperature and moisture regimes are thermic and aridic boarder on mesic, respectively. A toposequence was selected and, three soil profiles on shoulder, backslope and footslope geomorphic positions were described acoording to key to soil taxonmy and the soil horizons were sampled.
Air-dried samples were passed through 2 mm sieve and were used for laboratory analysis. Pseudo-total concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn were extracted by aqua regia digestion procedure. Free iron oxides Fed and amorphous iron oxides Feo were extracted by. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic as "water - rock " interaction.
Case study of lake Inari and river Paz. Due to the depletion of fresh water supplies and the deterioration of their quality as a result of anthropogenic impact on the Arctic ecosystems, the research questions of forming surface and ground waters, their interactions with the rocks , development of the foundations for their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance.
The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition of rocks of the northern part of the Fennoscandian Baltic shield on forming surface waters chemical composition Lake Inari, river Paz using physical-chemical modeling Chudnenko, , Selector software package. River Paz Paatsjoki is the largest river in North Fennoscandia and flows through the territory of three countries - Finland, Russia and Norway. Basing on the techniques developed earlier Mazukhina, , and the data of monitoring of the chemical composition of surface waters and investigation of the chemical composition of the rocks , physical-chemical modeling FCM Selector software package was carried out.
Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone NE Spain. Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites.
Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms.
Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations CPOs of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures.
Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display -fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the  axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of  and  axes within the foliation plane.
Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from -fiber to orthorhombic and -fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare -fiber patterns display strong point concentration of  axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other.
The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but. Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes.
The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. The adaptive radiation of lichen- forming Teloschistaceae is associated with sunscreening pigments and a bark-to- rock substrate shift.
Adaptive radiations play key roles in the generation of biodiversity and biological novelty, and therefore understanding the factors that drive them remains one of the most important challenges of evolutionary biology.
Although both intrinsic innovations and extrinsic ecological opportunities contribute to diversification bursts, few studies have looked at the synergistic effect of such factors.
This adaptation to sunny habitats is likely to have been enabled by a contemporaneous key novel phenotypic innovation: We found that the two ecological factors sun exposure and rock substrate and the phenotypic innovation anthraquinones in the thallus were all significant when testing for state-dependent shifts in diversification rates, and together they seem likely to be responsible for the success of the Teloschistaceae, one of the largest lichen- forming fungal lineages.
Our results support the idea that adaptive radiations are driven not by a single factor or key innovation, but require a serendipitous combination of both intrinsic biotic and extrinsic abiotic and ecological factors.
Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects. As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks , especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature.
In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology.
In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits. Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: A case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites. We report on the mineralogical assemblages found in the hyperalkaline springs hosted on Liguria and Oman ophiolites based on exhaustive X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microprobe analyses.
In Liguria, hyperalkaline springs produce a thin brownish calcite precipitate that covers the bedrock due to the concomitant atmospheric CO2 uptake and neutralization of the hyperalkaline waters. No brucite and portlandite minerals are observed. The discharge of alkaline waters in Oman ophiolite forms white-orange precipitates. This process is observed as a thin surface crust made of rhombohedral calcite. Morphological features of aragonite vary from needle-, bouquet-, dumbbell-, spheroidal-like habitus according to the origin of carbon, temperature, and ionic composition of the hyperalkaline springs, and the biochemical and organic compounds.
Brucite is observed both at hyperalkaline springs located at the thrust plane and at the paleo-Moho. The varying mixing proportions between the surface runoff waters and the hyperalkaline ones control brucite precipitation. The layered double hydroxide minerals occur solely in the vicinity of hyperalkaline springs emerging within the bedded gabbros.
Finally, the dominant mineralogical associations we found in Oman Ca-bearing carbonates and brucite in a serpentinizing environment driven by the meteoric waters are surprisingly the same as those observed at the Lost City hydrothermal site in a totally marine environment. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap HXB2 position ; LTR region.
According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study.
Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to. Experimental study of the hydrothermal alteration of a chemical analogue of the French nuclear glass in a thermal gradient: As the most dangerous radioactive wastes are to be stored in deep geological layers after having been packaged in barrels made of borosilicate glasses, this research report addresses the study of the alteration of such glasses through the study of a chemical analogue.
In order to experimentally model phenomena involved within a storage, the studied glass has been submitted to different thermal gradients between and C and during 3 to 5 months. These gradients comply with those met about the parcels, and allows the spatial evolution of the waste parcel at a given moment, as well as the evolution in time progressive cooling of wastes to be simultaneously simulated.
The different phases formed within the gradient have been studied and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, semi-quantitative microanalysis, and X-ray micro-diffraction [fr. Extended Gamma-Ray Emission from the G The LAT source is located in the G25 region, 1.
The extended sources have similar sizes of about 1. Given their spatial and spectral properties, they have no clear associations with sources at other wavelengths. Based on this scenario, we discuss possible acceleration processes in the SFR and compare them with the Cygnus cocoon.
Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction.
Uranium-polymetallic ore- forming system and mechanism of the black rock series in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate. It is the indisputable fact that the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization had happen in the southeast continental margin of Yangtze plate.
Obviously, the source of phophorite's ore- forming materials is closely related with the geological processes at depth. REE patterns are characterized by a low content in total and a gradually increasing with the increasing of REE atomic number, and the NASC-normalized value ranging between the upper and the lower limits of typical hydrothermal deposits. The large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization was controlled by the environment of continental margin rifting.
The authors propose that thermal sedimentation or exhalation-sedimentation is the mechanism of the large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in the southeast continental margin of the Yangtze plate. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan " rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen- forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota.
A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species.
The cosmopolitan " rock posy" lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen- forming ascomycetes.
In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R.
We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa.
Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya.
Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah floor dan lapisan antara inter burden pada batubara. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal.
Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks , Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene.
Olivine Fo92 - 93 with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine Fo free from spinel is found in matrix. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine.
Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase orthopyroxene in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions.
There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte upper half of image and a high slope lower half of image.
The rocks might be sedimentary rocks , similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Full Text Available The article presents results of petrophysical laboratory experiments in studies of decompression phenomena associated with consequences of abrupt displacements in fault zones.
Decompression was studied in cases of controlled pressure drop that caused sharp changes of porosity and permeability parameters, and impacts of such decompression were analyzed. Healing of fractured-porous medium by newly formed phases was studied. In nature, fracture healing is influenced by a variety of factors, such as size of discontinuities in rock masses, pressure and temperature conditions, pressure drop gradients, rock composition and saturation with fluid.
Impacts of such factors are reviewed. Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers Neuroendocrine tumors NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan.
A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan.
The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders.
This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field. Full Text Available Purpose: This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans. Art Rocks with Rock Art! This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals….
Basic rocks in Finland. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.
During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1. Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling VSP and analysis of core samples.
We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity such as the boogie woogie flu , the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome.
Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is Development of artificial soft rock. When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks , often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete.
As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed.
As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form , which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No.
Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden. A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite IOA type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits.
They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold IOCG deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements REE or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date with grades of 30 to 70 wt.
The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks , their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE.
Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks , ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock.
A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. Practicing on Newly Dead. Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis.
This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented.
Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients.
The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars. The rock surfaces are strong, because they did not scratch, chip or spall when the sampler pushed them.
Fresh surfaces of soil and the undersides of rocks were exposed so that they could be imaged in color. A ledge of soil adhered to one rock that tilted, showing that a crust forms near the surface of Mars. The reason for low amounts of iron in the sampIes from under the rocks is not known at this time. Fluids in metamorphic rocks. Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping.
The calculated Total Organic Carbon TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock -Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area.
Eventually, kerogen type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Australian provenance for Upper Permian to Cretaceous rocks forming accretionary complexes on the New Zealand sector of the Gondwana land margin. Their major Permian to Triassic, and minor Early Palaeozoic and Mesoproterozoic, age components indicate that most sediment was probably derived from the Carboniferous to Triassic New England Orogen in northeastern Australia.
This period of cordilleran-type orogeny allowed transport of large volumes of quartzo-feldspathic sediment across the convergent Gondwana land margin.
Post-Triassic depocentres also received recycled? The detailed provenance-age fingerprints provided by the detrital zircon data are also consistent with progressive southward derivation of sediment: Although the dextral sense of displacement is consistent with the tectonic regime during this period, detailed characterisation of source terranes at this scale is hindered by the scarcity of published zircon age data for igneous and sedimentary rocks in Queensland and northern New South Wales.
Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic age components cannot be adequately matched with likely source terranes in the Australian-Antarctic Precambrian craton, and it is possible they originated in the Proterozoic cores of the Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks of southeast China. Copyright Geological Society of Australia.
Released 19 April The Science 'White Rock ' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim.
Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater.
Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away.
The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving.
These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone.
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