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    From the book, one of the most important pioneering achievements of the first order is the study of kinship systems. What he found was that the Seneca designate their kin in a manner different from that of the Western culture.

    Unlike Western culture, they merge collateral relatives, such as cousins, nieces, and aunts, into the direct line, like fathers, sisters, and daughters. He graduated from Grove House High School but, never received a university degree due to the death of his parents.

    Following their death, Tylor started having symptoms of tuberculosis. He decided to leave England and travel to Central America in search for a warmer climate. This is where he first started his research on anthropology.

    He is considered one of the early proponents of cultural evolutionism in Anthropology. He had awards and achievements which were Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in , Honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford in and Knighted for his contributions in His first book, aptly titled Anthropology , is considered fairly modern in its cultural concepts and theories.

    In , Tylor joined the University Museum at Oxford and became a professor of Anthropology from to Most of Tylor's work involved the primitive culture and the minds of the people, particularly animism. Animism is a philosophical, religious or spiritual idea that souls or spirits exist not only in humans and animals but also in plants, rocks and natural phenomena. His work has been the foundation of many universities' Anthropological major curriculum. Some of his later works include: It developed the theory of an evolutionary, progressive relationship from primitive to modern cultures.

    It did this by defining "culture or civilization" as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society". This definition encouraged the idea that even primtives possessed capabilities ad habits that merited respect. Primitive stereotypes were thus changed. He earned a Ph. He originated the notion of "culture" as learned behaviors as well.

    His emphasis on research first, followed by generalizations, emphasized the creation of grand theories which were only after tested through field work Link: Boas was truly the first person to develop an ethnography which is a descriptive account of anthropological studies. Boas became Professor Emeritus in , after serving over 40 years as Professor at Columbia University.

    He died in Ruth Benedict was an American anthropologist whose work was greatly influenced by her mentor and teacher Franz Boas, the father of American anthropology.

    She graduated from Vassar College in and entered graduate studies at Columbia University in , studying under Franz Boas and receiving her PhD in Ruth Benedict expressed the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny which holds that the growth or change of the individual is a reflection of the growth or change of the species.

    She desired to show that each culture had its own moral imperatives that could be understood only if one studied that culture as a whole. Benedict conducted fieldwork in New Mexico with the Native American Pueblo people and used data from Franz Boas and other colleagues like Margaret Mead to supplement her research. Margaret Mead was the oldest of five sisters.

    Mead was born on December 16, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Barnard College, she received her Ph. It was there where she met her greatest influences, the anthropologists Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas. She was married three times in her life, her first marriage with Luther Sheeleigh Cressman, an archaeologist. Her third and longest-lasting marriage — was to the British Anthropologist Gregory Bateson with whom she had a daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson, who would also become an anthropologist.

    It was here she was able to take a positivist method to her research. Mead was also popular to mass media as a speaker and writer of her work. Each setting would match up to a separate experiment.

    This allowed anthropologists, such as Mead, to study human life by participant-observation instead of an artificial lab setting. Mead used this method when she studied four different societies in an attempt to discover the range and causes of gender role. It is still used today. Margaret Mead was known for introducing radical proposals and being an activist. One of her most memorable stances on issues was her outspoken advocacy on birth control.

    From her findings, she was able to produce many ethnographic writings, such as Coming of Age in Samoa and Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies 3. Julian Steward was born on January 31, , in Washington D. He returned to Berkeley for graduate studies, earning his Ph. Steward went on to establish an anthropology department at the University of Michigan, where he taught until The department later gained notoriety from the appointment and guidance of Leslie White, with whose model of "universal" cultural evolution Steward disagreed.

    Steward's career reached its apogee in when he took up the chair of the anthropology department at Columbia University - the center of anthropology in the United States. Murphy, and influenced other scholars such as Marvin Harris. Many of these students participated in the Puerto Rico Project, yet another large-scale group research study that focused on modernization in Puerto Rico. Steward left Columbia for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he continued to teach until his retirement in There he undertook yet another large-scale study, a comparative analysis of modernization in eleven, third-world societies.

    The results of this research were published in three volumes entitled Contemporary Change in Traditional Societies. Steward died in Steward is most remembered for his method and theory of cultural ecology. During the first three decades of the twentieth century, American anthropology was suspicious of generalizations and often unwilling to draw broader conclusions from the meticulously detailed monographs that anthropologists produced.

    Steward is notable for moving anthropology away from this more particularist approach and developing a more nomothetic, social-scientific direction. His theory of "multilinear" cultural evolution examined the way in which societies adapted to their environment.

    Steward's interest in the evolution of society also led him to examine processes of modernization. He was one of the first anthropologists to examine the way in which national and local levels of society were related to one another. He questioned the possibility of creating a social theory which encompassed the entire evolution of humanity, yet also argued that anthropologists are not limited to the description of specific, existing cultures.

    Steward believed it is possible to create theories analyzing typical, common culture, representative of specific eras or regions. In addition, he theorized there were decisive factors technology and economics and secondary factors political systems, ideologies, religions, etc that determine and influence the development of a given culture.

    Later in life, he began to teach at the Universities of Toronto, Louisville, and Buffalo. He then became a professor at the University of Pennsylvania where he pursued his interest in nonverbal communication and kinesics. Birdwhistell found most of his studies through observing people interactions in films. His observations concluded that people use eye movement, facial expressions, and their chest to convey information. Birdwhistell was the founder of Kinesics, the study of the human environment as culturally patterned visual communication, he released two texts on Kinesics, Introduction to Kinesics , and the better known Kinesics in context.

    Birdwhistell was a mentor to renowned folklorist, ethnomusicologist Alan Lomax. More on Kinesics in the Communication and Language Chapter. Harris joined the U. After graduating, Harris became an assistant professor at Columbia University, his main focus of the study was ideological features of culture.

    Later Harris did fieldwork in Mozambique in and started focusing more on behavioral aspects. Harris did most of his fieldwork in Brazil, Mozambique, India, and Ecuador. Harris was an American Anthropologist known for his writing and influence on cultural materialism.

    Harris had over 16 books published. Napoleon Chagnon was born in in Port Austin, Michigan. He was a major player in developing to the evolutionary theory of cultural anthropology. He first documented the Yanomami tribe as savages who treated him very poorly. As time progressed he gained greater insight of the workings of the tribe, and the nickname of Shaki, meaning "pesky bee". Through this research he was a pioneer in the fields of sociobiology and human behavioral ecology.

    The Fierce People , Chagnon, N. Although much of his work was meant to document the growing of a culture, he has also been credited as a destroyer of the culture. All claims by Tierney have been refuted, but it is a fact that due to exposure to other outside cultures, the people of this tribe were exposed to diseases that their bodies could not fight. Chagnon was not only known for his ethnography but he was also well known for criticism and controversy about his work and opinions.

    Paul Farmer is a well recognized medical anthropologist and doctor. While working towards his graduate degree at Harvard University, he began working to provide health care to the poor populations. This initiated his lifelong focus on providing proper health treatment to poverty stricken populations around the world through nonprofit work and through an anthropological lens regarding the social change necessary to aid the countries.

    At Harvard, Farmer specialized in infectious disease and currently focuses on those that disproportionately affect the poor, such as tuberculosis. In , Farmer helped put together a nonprofit called Partners in Health. To this day, the group treats 1, patients daily for free in the Haitian countryside as well as provides works to cure drug-resistant tuberculosis among prisoners in Siberia and in the slums of Lima and Peru.

    Farmer uses his anthropological knowledge and ethnographic analysis to create sustainable and practical health care services for those in need. He works to offset the negative effects in those societies caused by social and structural violence. Farmer is well known for the concept of "pragmatic solidarity", the idea of working to meet the needs of the victims while advocating for positive social change.

    Farmer has been awarded several honors; including the Conrad N. Tracking the Entire World. Cultural interactions result in both progressive and aggressive interactions due to the evolution of those cultures being uninfluenced by one another.

    What may be considered good etiquette in one culture may be considered an offensive gesture in another. As this occurs constantly, cultures push each other to change. The biological variations between humans are summarized in the ideas of natural selection and evolution. Human variation is based on the principle that there is variation in traits that result for recombination of genes from sexual reproduction.

    These traits are variable and can be passed down generation to generation. It also relies on differential reproduction, the idea that the environment can't support unlimited population growth because not all individuals get to reproduce to their full potential. An example of human variation can be found with a cline. A cline is a genetic variation between populations of species that are isolated in their reproduction such as skin color variation in humans.

    Human skin color variation is a selective adaptation that relates to the populations' proximity to the equator. Because of pigmentation characteristics within the human population, a system and term emerged to categorize the differing variations.

    This category is recognized as race. Populations of humans in equatorial regions have selective advantages as a result of their darker skin pigmentation, whereas populations in more northern environments have less selective pressure to evolve darker pigmentation and have lighter skin.

    Other clines include differences in stature and hair type. Ethnography is a core modern research method used in Anthropology as well as in other modern social sciences. Ethnography is the case study of one culture, subculture, or micro-culture made a the researcher immersing themself in said culture.

    Before ethnography, immersive research, the prevailing method was unilineal. This led to colonizers feeling able to set the rules for what is a "modern" or "primitive" culture and used these self-made justifications in order to rule over new colonies in the name of advancement for their people. This view came into question with Anthropologists like Franz Boas, offering the multilinear model for cultural evolution we have today.

    This model closer, reflects the realities of different cultures across the world advancing in separate ways and highlights the impossibility to call one culture "primitive" in relation to another. These cultures do not evolve from one another but evolved separately from each other into other cultures. A large part of the issue with early Anthropology was a reliance on second-party information while lacking any first-hand research of cultures.

    Armchair Anthropologists usually refers to late 19th century and early 20th century scholars coming to conclusions without going through the usual anthropology motions—fieldwork or lab work. They would then create wild theories based on these accounts. This led to a high degree of bias against these cultures, more so than firsthand research, and were not scientific in the way Anthropology is today. These biases turned into stereotypes which are still prevalent today.

    This form of research drove much of the colonial primitive culture narrative and necessitated the adaptation of Ethnography. Ethnography, or the immersive method of case study research, has to lead to the dispelling of rumor and a much deeper understanding of cultures through great effort. To begin, he clearly states his bias, being a male researcher and dealing primarily with the males of that society due to a highly gendered culture found there. He explains with great care that he is not searching for what men "do" but what they "say and do to be men.

    He had limitations both being an outsider and being male, only being able to see how one-half of these people portrayed their culture and even then through the lens of an outsider with his own biases, stated as clearly as possible within the paper. This is the value of Ethnography, it allows researchers to further understand their research while remaining as unbiased as possible, highlighting weaknesses and need for further research from people of different genders and backgrounds.

    An Ethnographic Analogy is a method for inferring the use or meaning of an ancient site or artifact based on observations and accounts of its use by living people.

    We can infer the use of an ancient tool by seeing how similar-looking tools are used in existing or recent societies. By analogy we can hypothesize the same use for the old tool. In anthropology there are several types of fieldwork methods that are used while conducting research. Below we will go more into depth with several fieldwork methods that are used. The observational method is viewed as the least invasive method where the anthropologist minimally integrates themselves into the society they are studying and gathers data through verbal communication while attempting to remain non-intrusive of the culture.

    This group of methods focuses on community interaction through language. It usually entails many open ended interviews with participants who are members of a group being studied. The researcher strives to learn as much as they can about the history of the community as well as the individuals within it in order to gain a full understanding of how their culture functions. Interviews can take place individually or with focus groups within the community based on age, status, gender, and other factors that contribute to differences within the community.

    This type of research often strives to create an open dialogue, called a dialectic, in which information flows back and forth between researcher and subject. Think of this situation as a conversation between two people about homework or an upcoming exam.

    This dialectic poses a challenge to the objectivity of socially produced data. The challenge is dealt with through reflection on the inter-subjective creation of meaning. This leads anthropologists to value reflexive abilities in their ethnographic writing. Because many anthropologists also hope to help the communities they work with to make change on their own terms within the confines of their own culture, in some cases objectivity is abandoned in favor of community based activism and social change.

    Participant observation is a method for anthropological Fieldwork, used to collect data such that the anthropologist must create an intimate relationship between themselves and the culture studied.

    This method requires that an anthropologist participate in a social event that is part of a specific culture. This includes, but is not limited to, observing members of a culture by taking notes, eating the food that is provided, and participating in festivities. The goal of participant observation is to be involved in the culture like a member of that society, all while observing and studying the culture.

    An example of participation observation would be if an anthropologist went to a Native American Tribal gathering and took notes on the energy and traditions they were being shown. This anthropologist could participate in things like face painting or songs, and eat the food that the Natives eat.

    The information gathered in this observation is then recorded and reflected upon to gain further insight into the culture being studied. This observation method helps the anthropologist develop a deeper rapport with the people of the culture and can help others understand their culture further.

    This experience may result in the individuals opening up more to the anthropologist which allows them to understand more than an etic point of view of the culture. In contrast to participant observation, non-participant observation is the anthropological method of collecting data by entering within a community but with limited interaction with the people within the culture.

    This anthropologist can be thought of as a fly on the wall. An etic approach that researchers often use to examine the details of how the subjects interact with one another and the environment around them. Detailed research such as body behavior e. An example of data collected through non-participant research would be the an estimation of how often women in a household wear high heels due to how worn out the carpet is. The non-participant observation, although effective in providing some research, has limitations.

    One being, the observer affect. This is caused by the presence of the researcher having an influence over the participants' actions. The researcher may use systematic approaches of field notes, sampling and data to ensure and increase comfortable interactions.

    While using the non-participant observation method, the researcher's opinions may oppose that of the participant's on a certain issue. The only solution to this problem and to have a fuller and unbiased take on the research is to use both non-participant and participant method.

    Cultural data assumes the form of directly observable material items, individual behaviors, performances, ideas and arrangements that exist only in people's heads. From the perspective of the culture concept, anthropologists must first treat all these elements as symbols within a coherent system and must record observations with attention to the cultural context and the meanings assigned by the culture's practitioners.

    These demands are met through two major research techniques: After the initial orientation or entry period, which may take 3 months or longer, the researcher follows a more systematic program of formal interviews involving questions related to research hypotheses and specialized topics. Several different methods of selecting informants are possible. Usually, a few key informants are selected for in-depth sessions, since the investigation of cultural patterns usually calls for lengthy and repeated open-ended interviews.

    Selection of such a small number does not allow for strict assurance of a representative sample, so the anthropologist must be careful to choose subjects who are well informed and reliable.

    Ethnographic researchers will also train informants to systematically report cultural data and recognize significant cultural elements and interconnections as the interview sequences unfold. Key informant selection is known as judgment sampling and is particularly important for the kind of qualitative research that characterizes ethnography.

    Anthropologists will very frequently also need to carry out quantitative research from which statistically validated inferences can be drawn.

    Accordingly, they must construct an either larger random sample or a total population census for more narrowly focused interviewing according to a closed questionnaire design. Other important quantitative data might include direct measurement of such items as farm size, crop yield, daily caloric intake, or even blood pressure, depending on the anthropologist's research focus.

    Aside from written observation and records, researchers will often provide ethnographic representations in other forms, such as collected artifacts, photographs, tape recordings, films, and videos. Since the beginning of anthropological studies, the Comparative Method has been a way to allow a systematic comparison of information and data from multiple sources.

    It is a common approach for testing multiple hypotheses on subjects including co-evolution of cultures, the adaptation of cultural practices to the environment, and kinship terms in local languages from around the world.

    The comparative method, may seem like an outdated form of fieldwork information gathering, however this method is still quite prevalent in modern day anthropological research. The use of this form of information gathering is intended to compare globalization, which uses a version of this method called multi-sited Ethnography by participant observation gathered from many different social settings.

    Another form of the comparative research method is shown through the Human Relations Area Files , which collects and organizes ethnographic texts from hundreds of societies all over the world. These files cover topics ranging from types of kinship systems, to trading practices found in all of human culture.

    Anthropologists Ruth Mace--an anthropologist who specializes in evolutionary ecology--and Mark Pagel explore the comparative method of anthropological research in their article The Comparative Method in Anthropology. They explain how in the past decade there have been many expansions in other branches of anthropology, including cultural diversity as a scientific endeavor.

    This is when the comparative method is used by those interested in cultural evolution and by those who study other human sciences. However, "cultures cannot be treated as independent for purposes of investigating cross culture trends," therefore they must instead be studied in relation to one another: How two or more cultures grow together, or how they are researched together has the ability to outline the entire premise of the comparative method.

    Having been used for hundreds of years, this method is still one of the main forms of research for anthropologists all over the world. Reflexivity is the awareness of the researcher of the effect they may be having on the research. It involves a constant awareness and assessment of the researcher's own contribution to and influence on the researcher's subjects and their findings.

    This principle was perhaps first thought of by William Thomas, as the "Thomas Theorem". Fieldwork in cultural anthropology is a reflexive experience. Anthropologists must constantly be aware that the information they are gathering may be skewed by their ethical opinions, or political standings.

    Even an anthropologists' presence in that culture can affect the results they receive. Reflexive fieldwork must retain a respect for detailed, accurate information gathering while also paying precise attention to the ethical and political context of research, the background of the researchers, and the full cooperation of informants. In our everyday lives reflexivity is used to better understand ourselves by comparing our culture to others.

    For example, when someone talks about their religion, you may immediately disagree with specific aspects of their religion because you have not grown up believing it as they have.

    By being reflexive, one would be able to recognize their bias. Some anthropologists have taken this method to the extreme, Margaret Wilson, for example, wrote her book 'Dance Lest We all Fall Down' in a reflexive biographical manner; this accounted for her inability to fully integrate into Brazilian society. Intersubjectivity is the realization that knowledge about other people emerges out of people's relationships with and perceptions of each other. The concept was first introduced by the principal founder of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl, and creates a "theoretical frame for thinking about the ways in which humans interpret, organize, and reproduce particular forms of social life and social cognition".

    Intersubjectivity is defined by five key principles. Instead of a one-way transaction, intersubjectivity should be seen more as a type of mutual understanding. The second claim of Husserl's dissertation is that intersubjectivity is founded on the principle that we all share the same world, so that if two individuals were to "trade places", it would be present itself in the same way. Through empathetic insight, human beings achieve Platzwechsel , which is a term used in chess to mean "place exchange".

    The third claim is that intersubjectivity creates a synthesis of worldviews through the usage of empathy. Although there may be different perspectives in the relationship presented, the collective world is assumed to be the same through the bilateral insight of shared knowledge.

    In other words, intersubjectivity is not the result of communication, instead it is the condition required for it to occur. Finally, the fifth claim is that intersubjectivity is the principle by which anthropologists must view their work. In order to properly create an account of a group of people, one must develop relationships with others and deduce perceptions through experience.

    Because of the intrinsic qualities of this type of research ideally being conducted by people with close ties or membership of a community , it is usually very applicable to situations in the community. The research is an analysis of the community's behavior by the community's members.

    Not only are they by necessity, motivated to work on the problem, but they will already have significant rapport with other community members which allows them to better address and analyze it. The dynamic attributes of the process allow constant reevaluation and change. This cyclic or regularly repeated tendencies can develop into healthy adaptation patterns in the community without outside contributions or aid.

    The triangulation method is the "combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon". It is usually the preferred way to research because it can combine all methods of researching to get the best results. It uses qualitative and quantitative practices together. The qualitative practice gives the triangulation method its inquiry results. The quantitative practice gives it the validation results. It combines a scientific approach with an observational approach.

    According to the Administrative Science Quarterly, it is a "vehicle for cross-validation when two or more distinct methods are found to be congruent and yield comparable data".

    Relying on one form of research can create a bias. The general problem with measurement data, is the individual or group being researched tends to tell you what you want to hear instead of the full truth. Triangulation helps prevent bias by giving the researcher the opportunity to participate in individual, self-reported and observational methods with those being researched. Sampling bias generally means that the researcher doesn't have time to cover the entire group they are focusing on. Or they focus on what they think the important parts of a society are and don't study the less important aspects.

    Triangulation can combine phone research, face-to-face interviews, and online surveys to ensure that the researcher is getting the most accurate results. In all, the triangulation method for fieldwork can combine all aspects of research to create the most accurate and detailed results, taking different perspectives and various sources to culminate into the most accurate model or a culture.

    Quantitative research is more interested in hard data procured through things like surveys, polls, and censuses. This type of research is interested in things like the percentage of people interviewed that agree with one statement versus another, the number of people in a culture that belong to a certain organization, or how many people in a country speak the native language versus how many are bilingual or only speak a foreign language.

    This method of research usually requires a large random sample group. It is totally concerned with the hard evidence quantity through statistics and recorded happenings, participants, and locations. Qualitative research is typically descriptive, or anecdotal, and does not lend itself to the analysis of quantitative data.

    Qualitative research is in-depth research that seeks to understand why something happens the way it does. In anthropology, qualitative research includes participating as well as observing. It often crosses disciplinary boundaries and strays from a single subject, or variable being studied. Due to the specific rapport required to obtain qualitative data, it generally requires a smaller sample size. Made popular during the late 18th century, this was the primary anthropological method used until the s.

    It is based around the central idea of positivism, a theory saying that theology and metaphysics are earlier imperfect modes of knowledge and that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena with their properties and relations as verified by the scientific method. The ideal positivist approach would occur with a physical scientist in a lab, producing concrete results.

    Anthropologists adapted this method to their own use by testing hypotheses in different cultures under similar conditions. This method was very successful in recording previously unknown data about different peoples, but it was often objective facts about a way of life in which the people of the culture at question were regarded more as lab subjects than actual human beings.

    Eventually this method was adapted into the reflexive method, to better demonstrate the relationships that exist within communities and the anthropologists own interactions with the informants.

    The positivist approach requires the use of the scientific method. A researcher makes an observation about a social behavior or condition, constructs a hypothesis as to the reason or outcome of the observation, tests the hypothesis and then analyzes the results. Spradley describes ethnography as different from deductive types of social research in that the five steps of ethnographic research: All five steps happen simultaneously p.

    In his book, Spradley describes four types of ethnographic analysis that basically build on each other. The other kinds of analysis are taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, and theme analysis. These meanings are expressed through symbols, which can be words, but can also be nonverbal cues. However, because this book is about analyzing interviews, Spradley focuses on analyzing the spoken words of the participants.

    He explains that words are symbols that represent some kind of meaning for an individual, and each symbol has three parts: Thus, the word computer can be a symbol. It refers to many things, including an individual's own personal computer. Thus, a computer is a kind of computer in the mind, or the idea of a computer, and this shows the relationship between the symbol computer and the referent an actual physical computer.

    The category of computers is a domain that includes not only a laptop, but all the Dells, Toshibas, iMacs, and IBMs in the world. These all share the same relationship because they are all kinds of computers. There are three elements to a domain. Second, there are included terms, which are all the types of computers just listed.

    When anthropologists complete a domain analysis, they are gaining an understanding of how people place objects within different domains.

    In other words how does a person, family, or culture categorize the world around them. This information can be gathered is several ways. Strict inclusion "what is a Macbook, a computer , Domain analysis, and questioning the categorization are methods of domain analysis.

    Taxonomic Analysis is a search for the way that cultural domains are organised. Building upon the first type of analysis, this form of research is best defined as the classification of data in form x is a kind of y D'Andrade, Used largely for the organization and grouping of plant and animal species, the taxonomic analysis is not focused on the features of an organism but rather the variable genetic differences that define them.

    Taxonomic Analysis usually involves drawing a graphical interpretation of the ways in which the individual participants move, form groups, and pattern the structure of a conversation. For example, scientists can refer to the common chimpanzee using the taxonomy pan troglodyte which is the ITIS report that has qualifications of all known mammals and make specific references to that species without fear of error in their classification and use of data.

    The realization that knowledge about other people emerges out of people's relationships with and perceptions of each other. The changing of species over time. A demographically diverse group of people assembled to participate in a guided discussion about a particular thing before it is released.

    Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Children and even adults train their bodies and brains for real life situation through playing. Through the act of playing, children acquire and learn many new skills which contribute to their growth and development, such as cooperation, decision-making, as well as improved ability to both think and act more creatively. According to a report by Kenneth R.

    Patterns and connections made between nerve cells and neurons in the brain are stimulated and influenced by the activities children engage in, such as play. Children should be encouraged to play because it can be extremely constructive to the overall development of their brains, as well as effective in forming new connections in their brains. Playing also prompts children to use their brains in creative and imaginative ways.

    This not only develops and strengthens connections in their brains but also allows them to experience many different aspects of the world that they may not otherwise be able to experience. These games allow children to play and think creatively together.

    Sandra Shiner says this about fantasy games: Games that children have created usually have sets of rules that the players are expected to follow. These types of rule-making collaborations through play not only teach children how to logically come up with ideas and rules, but also teaches them how to interact with each other, communicate, and understand how to socialize and work in a group.

    Studies have also shown that, "while in free play children tended to sort themselves into groupings by sex and color". It wasn't until recently that modern anthropologists realized the human play was an important factor and was necessary to be studied because of its massive impact on human behavior. The act of playing is now viewed by many in the field of anthropology as a universal practice and one that is significant to the understanding of human cultures.

    Play is demonstrated and encouraged in the United States preschool system. Parents are encouraged to send their children to preschool so that they can learn ways of play and interaction that will be important skills as they grow older and begin to integrate into society.

    Preschool and the idea of play in this context is beneficial to young children because it teaches the life skill of sharing, as well as many others like friendship, patience, and acceptance of others. For example, children with special needs can go to preschool for therapeutic benefits, like the development of fine-motor skills, relationship practice, creative thinking, and above all an opportunity for fun.

    Many schools devoted to special needs children utilize a technique called floor-time, which at its core, is play-time. This one-on-one play time with an adult is a great way for special needs children to explore specific areas of interest and develop a sense of self-worth they otherwise may not have been exposed to. Gender differences within child's play are not consistent over time. Studies focusing on children in preschool found that girls typically develop social and structured forms of play at a younger age than boys, however, males displayed more solitary play.

    They are exploring their world by watching, grabbing and rattling objects, and often spend much of their time playing on their own. Solitary play begins in infancy and is common in toddlers. However, it is important for all age groups to have some time to play by themselves".

    There are a number of reasons female children have an advantage when it comes to social play. Play involves communication, role taking, and cooperation. Socio-cognitive skills, such as language and theory-of-mind, are acquired at an earlier age for females.

    Within the first year, females show stronger social orientation responses and facial recognition, and more eye contact. These skills translate to social competence with peers. Another reason females may appear to have a higher quality of play may be related to gendered toys.

    A study showed that both male and female children had the greatest play complexity when they played with toys that were stereotypical female toys, compared to when they played with neutral or male stereotyped toys. As humans mature into adults, the idea of playing seems to fade. Leisure activities of intrinsic value are vital for both physical and mental health, attaining a sense of fulfillment in life, and for overall happiness. The importance of play and leisure are constantly overlooked when combating stress.

    Stress has been shown to have negative effects on areas ranging from national health to the economy. These problems are often attributed to the lack of vacation time in America, or in other words, a lack of leisure and play. When adults are given the time to engage in activities of play such as sports, hobbies, dancing, or various other recreational activities there are distinct benefits to their quality of life.

    Some ways adults can play is by doing activities outside like hiking or boating, interacting with friends, or going out for drinks and dancing. A sport is a type of play that is governed by a set of rules. In most cases it is considered to be physically exertive and competitive. In almost all forms of sport, the competition determines a winner and a loser. Physical exertion can vary dramatically across sports like golf versus football.

    Sports tend to contain both play, work and leisure. Less physically exertive forms of sports tend to constitute play, while more exertive and athletically demanding sports often serve as work for athletes and owners of sports teams.

    However, sports are generally defined by conflict where the goal is always for one opponent or team to win.

    In some culture, conflict-resolution is often the goal. This type of play, because it is defined by set rules, creates a virtual world where participants can create heroes, enemies, suffer and celebrate, all without real-world consequence. Athletes and teams exist not only to oppose each other, but to represent themselves as players and their team. Sports hold a variety of different meanings across cultures. Soccer originated in Europe and has been around for thousands of years. Some of the earliest forms have been documented as an after war ritual where instead of a ball they would use the head of an enemy.

    In a study of soccer in Brazil, Dr. Janet Lever finds that organized sports aid political unity and allegiance to the nation-state. Interestingly, different teams tend to represent different culture groups, such as different economic levels and ethnicities. This creates allegiances at a local level, but the team that represents a city in the national championships will have the support of all the people of that city, thus building political unity on a greater level.

    Having this firm support for the representation of teams gives people something to identify with. Their support for their team can be taken as giving support to their nation. This is even more so in World Cup championships when the entire country of Brazil units to support their country's official team. Brazilians fans like to boast about 'Penta' since they are the only country to win the World Cup five times; , , , and Sports bring out an aggressive and competitive side in all athletes.

    They also highlight inequalities, such as gender segregation between men and women. Brazilian women are far less interested in soccer, and as a result, remain separate from men in that aspect. The last statement may not be entirely accurate as a large number of Brazilian women are some of the most passionate soccer fans in the world. Also, Brazil women's national team is the most successful club in the sport.

    In the Republic of Serbia, it is thought that playing soccer enhances qualities. These aspects include aggressiveness, competition, physical strength, coordination, teamwork, discipline, and speed.

    These are all qualities attributed to the male gender. It is a common practice for men to watch games together in their homes, in front of local stores, etc. Women are not welcomed at these gatherings and are often asked to leave before the game starts or asked not to come until the game is over.

    This male dominated aspect of Serbian culture parallels the gender segregation between men and women found in Brazil. Soccer was especially practiced by the poor throughout the 20th century. Many poor boys are dreaming of becoming the next Pele or Ronaldo and because of this, they promote the national soccer culture even more. Dreaming about soccer is a motivation for millions of poor children who want to escape from their poverty. In Brazilian life, it's not uncommon for soccer culture to have a bigger influence than politics or economics.

    American Football has many widely televised games that draw a large audience every year. These games include the Super Bowl by drawing in millions of television viewers each year in early February, and college football's multiple BCS Bowl Championship Series bowl games that occur around and on New Years Day.

    The NFL is becoming more popular globally. In the NFL season, the New Orleans Saints and the San Diego Chargers played regular season game in London and has progressed into at least one internationally located game each year since. This was done to help make the NFL more global and expand the culture of the game.

    Football is a violent game, with hits at the professional level often characterized by two outstanding athletes running at full speed into one another with the sense of danger neutralized by the pads and helmet they wear for protection. The aggressive nature of football is a major contributor to its popularity, with toughness and perseverance as its chief virtues. However, scientific research revealing the health issues suffered by players later in life, including CTE and Dementia, has lead to concern about whether the negative impact of playing the game out ways the positives.

    This universal sport has been the center of cultural life in the Dominican Republic, connecting Dominicans to one another, as well as connecting them to the rest of the Caribbean for over years. Since the Dominican Republic is an economically poor country,although David Ortiz and other players return to help promote those kids to help them live their dreams and show that they can use baseball to see other cultures while playing the game they love.

    This constant competition is a great source of entertainment, which is why baseball games are a huge part of Dominican culture. Most women are forbidden to partake in this sport. This rule is not so much sexism as it is an attempt to keep women safe, as most Dominicans believe that baseball is a dangerous sport for women because of the hard ball that can be hit anywhere at any given moment. Although it is not a law that women cannot play baseball, they traditionally do not partake in this cultural pastime.

    For women, they created a sport called Softball,similar to baseball but with a bigger and softer ball. For men in the Dominican Republic, Baseball is not only a great hobby and way to relate to each other, it is also an opportunity to strive to become the best athletes they can possibly become.

    Baseball has been a great part of America and has help shape sports from history. As Asia first started to play the game of baseball, America came and took over a revolution. While symbols and language are used in a wide variety of sports, they are absolutely essential to the game of baseball. In a full nine inning game of baseball, there is almost never a moment of complete silence on the field. In American culture, certain gestures and hand motions are used by the 3rd base coach to communicate a specific action for the batter to perform Swing, bunt, take, etc.

    Hand gestures and voice commands are used by players on the field to communicate position changes, the number of outs there are, and tips about where the batter typically hits the ball. The most important use of symbols and hand gestures in baseball comes from the catcher and are directed towards the pitcher. These gestures are an essential aspect of the game because they tell the pitcher what pitch he is throwing next Curveball, fastball, slider, etc.

    Commands in baseball come from different members of the team third base coach, first base coach, head coach, players, etc. For example, in American culture hitting signs come from the third base coach, and catching signs come from the head coach.

    In addition, baseball is mainstream sport in the United States dissimilar from the others such as American football or soccer, as baseball is played without a timer. This allows players to showcase their skill without having to worry about time management, making for tense displays of skill. Equally popular in the United States is basketball, which has a growing global following as well.

    Basketball is played with five players on each team with the main goal being scoring points by successfully throwing the ball through a hoop. Basketball is played widely throughout the United States and is popular with both men and women.

    It is also one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world. The battle for equality of woman's sports has been an ongoing struggle for many years. Title IX helped make a huge impact on the WNBA because it helped out college basketball players, allowing to give them scholarships. Besides the United States, basketball is also extremely popular in many other countries.

    Basketball has been a huge part in the globalization of nations. The United States has had the largest impact on globalization within the basketball world because it has the largest and most popular professional leagues. Two components of sleep. One is the body clock , and the other is the "wake-meter". Body clock produces increased sleepiness every 24 hours. The wake-meter increases sleepiness with prolonged wakefulness i. In sleep literature, these two mechanisms are called the circadian and homeostatic components of sleep propensity.

    What is your type? You can find many lark-or-owl tests on the net. However, I have not yet seen even one that would be well-designed to truly answer the question of your genetic predispositions. In particular, the same person on a work-week schedule may be classified as a different chronotype than when he or she is on a free running schedule.

    Few people know that they can easily adapt to a completely different schedule by means of chronotherapy e. If you ask a typical owl to go to sleep minutes later each day, the owl will keep shifting its bedtime to later hours. Initially, it will sleep during the day. That sleep will shift gradually to even later hours until the owl finds itself going to sleep in the very early evening just to get up before the larks! Surprisingly, even the most committed owl can then comfortably stick to the early waking hours for quite long!

    There is little natural preference as to the sleeping time of the day! However, there is a factor that drives people into believing they are of a given sleep-time preference type.

    This is the length of the circadian cycle and their ability to entrain it to 24 hours. As mentioned earlier, typical circadian clock period lasts longer than 24 hours.

    Those people whose cycle is particularly long tend to go to sleep later each day. They push the limit of morning hours up to the point when their compulsory wake-up time results in unbearable sleepiness.

    In other words, people with long cycles will tend to work during the night and sleep in the morning as long as it is only possible. A smaller proportion of people will experience short circadian periods and experience extreme sleepiness in the early evening. This is the lark type. Life forces larks to go to sleep slightly later than their natural preference family, work, light, etc.

    This keeps larks in line with time and they will often claim that the quiet of the morning, the singing of birds or the beauty of the sunrise keeps them getting up early. Yet it is still possible to forcibly push a lark to gradually shift sleeping hours and behave like an owl! In a modern society, only a small fraction of people can boast a perfectly steady and regular natural sleep pattern.

    Not only are these the healthiest people around, they are also creatures of habit in reference to their sleep and waking rituals. They obey their rituals religiously, avoid alarm clocks, avoid evening entertainment, avoid medication that affects sleep, etc.

    Unlike those well-regulated individuals, owls shifted to a morning schedule will gradually tend to advance to their standard late-night rhythm. Similarly, larks will quickly shift back to getting up with the birds. Some correlation studies showed that owls as defined by the timing of melatonin release exhibit slightly higher IQs than larks Roberts and Kyllonen [13].

    Understanding the control mechanisms that produce sleep and wakefulness is extremely helpful in understanding sleep habits. It is particularly useful in individuals suffering from a number of sleep disorders, esp. Simple measurements of circadian variables and simple tools of chronotherapy may bring sound sleep to those who often struggled for years with insomnia , unsatisfying sleep, or sleep in wrong hours.

    Better understanding of chronobiology could also help extinguish dangerous practices such as poorly planned shift-work , disrespect for health consequences of the jet lag, cumulative sleep deprivation and the Internet fad of Uberman sleep. To illustrate various sleep habits I use charts from a freeware program SleepChart. You can download SleepChart here and begin your own analyses today. All you need to do in the program is to click the beginning and the end of the sleep block in the graph.

    See the bottom of the SleepChart window for exact time corresponding with the position of the mouse pointer. If you set a wrong block, select it with a click and press Del. Using SleepChart data, I will try to explain the main reason for which healthy people may not be getting refreshing sleep: SleepChart attempts to approximate the circadian bathyphase that correlates with maximum sleepiness, low body temperature, low ACTH , high melatonin , etc.

    The underlying assumption is that when you log your sleep with SleepChart, you do not attempt to artificially play with the sleep hours. Each intervention in the sleep schedule makes the tools used in SleepChart work with lesser accuracy. Here are the most important interventions that should be avoided:.

    On those rare occasions when you delay sleep or use an alarm clock, you can disqualify the sleep episode with the appropriate markings. However, all attempts to modify the sleep schedule will partly fool the algorithm and your reading will be inaccurate or plain wrong.

    It is also very important that you do not attempt to follow the circadian approximation when determining your optimum sleeping hours!

    You should always give priority to your natural body signals, i. Following SleepChart approximations can result in a positive feedback of error. In other words, errors in the graph may be amplified by your attempts to follow the graph. This can disrupt the sleep cycle. At worst, you could even self-diagnose yourself with DSPS without actually suffering from the disorder!

    Your only and sole "go to sleep" criterion should be rapidly increasing sleepiness. You may use the graph to approximate the moment in which the readiness for sleep will occur so that you could "cool down" in time.

    Courtesy of the numerous contributors who sent in their SleepChart data, we can draw a number of interesting conclusions. The most compelling one is probably the confirmation of the hypothesis that we might be facing an epidemic of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome DSPS in younger generations, esp. The epidemic is a result of an ever-growing discrepancy between the environment in which humans and their primate ancestors evolved over the last several million years, and the environment in which we live today with electric lighting, Internet, computers, TV, rat race, and hour society.

    The increasing gap between lifestyles and biology leads many to seek radical solutions and take on drastic measures. A quick survey of those who attempted to adapt to an Uberman sleep schedule reveals an interesting truth.

    Although the idea to squeeze in more waking hours into a day is very appealing, most of the "experimenters" began their interest in polyphasic sleep as a result of troubles with achieving refreshing sleep! Some people reacted with skepticism to the concept of using SleepChart as a sleeping prop: Sleep is as natural as breathing air or drinking water and if you have to set up complicated charts and experiments, and utterly eccentric sleep-activity patterns just so as to get some decent shut-eye, then you must have a problem - but one more of a psychological than a physiological nature".

    It is true that sleep will occur naturally in a natural setting. SleepChart may seem complex, but it might still be the easiest way to predict the optimum timing of sleep in free-running conditions for people who may have problems with sleeping. SleepChart will only ask you when you go to sleep and when you wake up naturally. All computational complexity is hidden in the background. The approximation procedure needs no further input from the user and it predicts the circadian bathyphase as well as the optimum bedtime.

    SleepChart can even disentangle homeostatic and circadian components of sleep. Understanding these can also be helpful in planning healthy sleep.

    I agree that the need to resort to tools such as SleepChart is a sign of troubled times. However, SleepChart has a proven record of helping people understand their seemingly irregular sleep patterns and organizing their sleep. Falling asleep might be natural, but there are many factors that mask sleepiness or magnify it. For people on very irregular sleep schedules this can pose an insurmountable obstacle! People with sleep problems are often little understood by the naturals: Surely this is as it always has been for most people throughout history and surely this is how it will always remain".

    This attitude towards sleep problems is not much different from telling a clinically depressed person: A tortured insomniac will only get more upset with himself or herself if s he is told that sleepless nights come from "unsolid work", "indecent meals", "improper family life" or treating others "inhumanely".

    The trouble stems from the clash of biology with modern lifestyle. With the arrival of artificial lighting sleep disorder statistics skyrocketed. These were only made worse by television, computer games and the Internet. With the advent of mobile telephony and instant messaging, insomnia and sleep phase disorders seem to reach epidemic proportions.

    Fewer people are able to leave work behind, cope with stress, or give up evening activities. Without a major change in lifestyle or a breakthrough in circadian control methods, people affected with lifestyle-related sleep disorders are faced with a choice between a daily sleep deprivation misery and radical solutions such as throwing away the alarm clock. Certainly, we can expect science to come up with answers to the problem.

    Until that happens though, waking up "happily refreshed" remains a privilege of a shrinking subset of the population in industrialized nations. To make it possible to analyze the connection between sleep and learning, SleepChart has been integrated with SuperMemo speed-learning software.

    Keep in mind that some of the functions related to memory are not included in the freeware version due to the fact that it does not have access to your learning data. SleepChart was included in SuperMemo a few years ago upon the understanding that sleep is vital for learning.

    To sleep well and to learn well, one needs to understand his or her own circadian rhythm. SleepChart in SuperMemo was designed with the view to assisting in that task. It can help you optimize the timing of sleep as well as to optimize the timing of your learning.

    Moreover, you can submit your sleep and learning data for analysis and have your own contribution in our research over the impact of sleep on memory. You can access SleepChart in SuperMemo with: Sleep blocks are marked in blue.

    Learning blocks are marked in red. Total learning time on individual days is displayed on the right. Selected sleep block is displayed in yellow. The length of that block is displayed at the bottom.

    In SuperMemo, the learning timeline is generated automatically. Each time your make repetitions with SuperMemo, the learning block is added to the timeline displayed in red on the graph. On the other hand, your sleep data must be logged in manually displayed in blue.

    At minimum skill level, you can use SleepChart for a basic visual inspection of your favorite learning and sleep hours. However, more advanced functions such as optimizing the time for learning or the time for sleep require advanced analysis and understanding of circadian rhythms.

    If you start logging your sleep data today, you will be able to use future, more advanced versions of SuperMemo to study and understand your sleep and learning.

    The timeline of sleep in SleepChart must be logged manually. To log a block of sleep, click the beginning of the block sleep start and then click the end of the block sleep end. You can also start from clicking the end of sleep first. Sleep blocks above 22 hours are disallowed. Sleep blocks cannot overlap with repetitions timeline you cannot learn with SuperMemo and be asleep at the same time.

    If you have already collected your sleep data in SleepChart Freeware , you can import this data to SuperMemo with File: SleepChart file you can also import data from a spreadsheet.

    If you import files from SleepChart Freeware, you can test for sleep and learning overlaps with File: Protection from block overlaps is an important advantage of using SleepChart in SuperMemo as opposed to a standalone SleepChart, in which it was very easy to fall out of phase in logging data e. You can mark blocks of forcefully delayed sleep, as well as mark blocks cut short with an alarm clock or other factors.

    Please note that you can get best analytical results if you do not artificially regulate sleep e. Applied models will not fully account for artificial intervention. Last but not least, natural sleep is what you should aim for in learning as well as for the sake of maximum health and well-being. Combining sleep timeline with repetition data taken from SuperMemo opens an array of new research and optimization options.

    Various sleep statistics pertaining to individual days can be displayed on the right. Sleep blocks can be consolidated with the Consolidate button on the toolbar. For example, if you woke up for min. Short nocturnal awakenings are a norm, even if we are not aware of them, and have little impact on learning. Sleep block consolidation often unmasks important properties of sleep e.

    It helps treat successive sleep episodes as an expression of a single period of high sleep propensity. In addition to sleep statistics, optimum bedtime can also be estimated in SleepChart. Two independent models are used to predict middle-of-the-night points as well as the expected optimum retirement and awakening times. Those approximations may be helpful in optimizing sleep in people who work shifts or sleep in irregular hours for various reasons.

    For example, after a week of irregular sleep, it may be difficult to determine the optimum retirement hour that is likely to produce best quality sleep. Going to sleep too early might result in premature awakening which may often ruin the night sleep entirely. Going to sleep too late may result in short night sleep, sleep deprivation, and reduced alertness on the following day.

    Predicting optimum sleep time on the basis of sleep history is inexact science, and the two models used may produce different outcomes. Your natural instinct should always take precedence over mathematical models. Moreover, best results in sleep optimization are accomplished in free-running sleep. If you use an alarm clock, or force yourself awake through the night, or take sleeping pills, the models may not adequately account for the chaotic change that is occurring in your sleep control systems.

    Blue and red continuous lines are predictions of optimum sleep time using the SleepChart model based on sleep statistics. Yellow continuous line shows the prediction of the maximum of circadian sleepiness circadian middle-of-the-night peak using a phase response curve model. Note that theoretically, yellow line should roughly fall into the middle between blue and red lines. However, when a disruption of the sleep pattern is severe, those lines might diverge testifying to the fact that it is very hard to build models that fully match the chaotic behavior of the sleep control system subjected to a major perturbation.

    Aqua dots point to the predicted daytime dip in alertness i. The circadian graph in SleepChart can help you better understand your sleep patterns, as well as to visualize the degree of cycle instability i.

    You will need a few months of data before the graph becomes meaningful. In addition, subjective night approximation lines in the sleep log are subject to substantial hysteresis. If your lifestyle changes dramatically e. The circadian graph may then be more difficult to interpret. In such cases, you can use From the first day and To the last day options to demarcate the period of interest. This will limit the analysis to a selected period characterized by a selected lifestyle. Blue line shows the preferred time to fall asleep.

    It corresponds with sleep propensity derived from the number of sleep blocks falling into a given hour of the waking day, where zero on the horizontal axis refers to the hour of waking up. Percentage of sleep episodes initiated at any given time is displayed on the right vertical axis. The blue line roughly expresses your "tiredness of wakefulness". It also expresses your ability to fall asleep. Your own optimum bedtime hour is your personal characteristic as it differs between people.

    For most people the optimum bedtime falls into the range of hours from waking. In the example, the most favored bed time occurs in the 18th hour of waking. Red line shows the average length of sleep. This line is a rough reflection of the ability to maintain sleep, i. The average length of sleep is displayed on the left vertical axis.

    The graph will tell you that even if you are able to initiate sleep during the day, it will never last long. In most cases of regular sleepers, only after hours of waking does the length of initiated sleep start increasing.

    Note that the sleep length graph is slightly phase shifted in reference to the preferred sleep initiation time due to the fact that long sleep is mostly achieved by initiating sleep early. If you are trying to determine your optimum bedtime, find the evening peak in the blue curve and choose nearby points that produce sufficiently long sleep red curve high enough. In addition, pay attention to the fact that your wake and sleep time should add up to 24 hours, otherwise you will experience phase shifts.

    Some people take naps during the day. In nappers, the blue curve should also point to the maximum mid-day alertness dip. Short nap time may actually be a sign of good nap timing as long as the nap is not taken too early in reference to the blue curve see: Non-nappers will also experience a peak of sleepiness around the 7th hour even though their blue curve will not show as a prominent bulge.

    If the graph shows that your optimum nap time falls into the 8th hour, and you wake up at 6 am, you should take a break at around You could also plan your lunch at around The blue line shows that the 18th hour is the preferred time to initiate sleep, while the length of sleep red line is long enough to add up to a 24 hour sleep-wake cycle. As blue peaks are of the same height, we can conclude that the graph represents a religious napper, whose optimum siesta time occurs 7 hours from awakening.

    In this case, for an awakening at 8 am, the siesta should begin at 3 pm, and the night sleep around 2 am. For both blue peaks, 7. Maximum length of sleep can be achieved at the 16th hour, however, this does not indicate this is the optimum hour of going to sleep. If sleep is initiated too early, it may or may not catch on the full circadian low of the subjective night. In other words, there is a risk of a premature awakening after just a couple of minutes of sleep. Such an awakening makes it harder to fall asleep again.

    This is one of chief causes of insomnia. The difficulty in re-initiating sleep is due to a very rapid loss of homeostatic sleep propensity during sleep. In addition, sleep initiated before the full circadian low does not seem to be of more value than slightly shorter sleep initiated a bit later e.

    The blue homeostatic line indicates that the sleep is more likely to be initiated effectively at the 18th hour, while its average length is then 6 hours.

    If your graph is generated without attempts to artificially regulate sleep, the second peak in the homeostatic curve will often indicate the optimum bedtime. The graph also indicates that if the sleep is delayed by an hour, it will be shortened by minutes.

    It is possible, that even this little shortening will affect the performance during the day. If the sleep is advanced by an hour, it may be minutes longer but its quality is not likely to increase proportionally. The graph can also show how the length of the circadian period can be determined by the bedtime hour.

    The green line shows the set of breakeven points for a stable 24 hours sleep-wake cycle where the sleep and wake times add up to 24 hours.

    All the circadian graph points that lie to the right of the green line cause a phase delay, while points on the other side will cause a phase advance.

    Aqua blue line shows where the hour-cycle green line crosses the red sleep length line. Due to the fact that the angle between green and red lines is large, this sleep pattern is pretty unstable. This means that going to sleep before the 18th hour will result in a cycle that is less than 24 hours long, while going to sleep after the 18th hour may lengthen the cycle and result in phase shift delays.

    Later bedtime around the 18th hour will result in a perfect 24 hours day, while a very long waking day e. Naturally, all manipulations in the length of the day would better be avoided as early bedtime increases the chances of insomnia , while a very late bedtime increases the chances of sleep deprivation, and REM sleep deficit.

    Understanding one's sleep preferences can be very helpful for planning shift-work or combating jetlag in long-haul flights. The second graph shows a sleep pattern that is much more stable that the one from the first example above.

    The graph shows a habitual napper who shows a preference for a waking day of 19 hours. As opposed to the graph shown earlier, the zone of stable sleep-wake cycle, demarcated by vertical aqua lines is much wider due to the fact that red and green lines are nearly parallel.

    This means that if the sleep is initiated after the 20th hour of waking, the night sleep will be shortened to fit the 24h cycle.

    Naturally, even if delayed sleep does not cause a phase shift, it will always result in lesser sleep quality due to stage compression. Such sleep will result in sleep deficits. Days lasting less than 20 hours may result in a phase advance. Despite running free, the longest average sleep period initiated at around the 16th hour isn't even 6 hours long.

    This illustrates that excessive sleeping is not a problem in free running sleep. As shown in both graphs above, with sufficient discipline, people with phase disorders should be able to accomplish 24 hour free running rhythm independent of the desired waking hour.

    In practice, due to various perturbations in lifestyle exams, stress, socializing, etc. For those who need to wake up at a specific early hour, free running sleep may become unobtainable without the use of an alarm clock, melatonin , or other unwelcome measures. Let us now consider an ideally synchronized hour cycle. In the picture below, an octogenarian female wakes up naturally everyday around 3: There is no synchronization with daylight as the waking hour falls into the period of darkness.

    The cycle is synchronized by evening activities, not daylight. The subject keeps in her mind a "must go to sleep" hour estimation that helps synchronize body clock with the time of day. This "psychological imprint" is illustrated by a smooth change in the sleeping rhythm after the end of the daylight saving time on Sunday October 27, the graph disregards DST so that the waking hour before the change is set at 2: Even though aging is said to increase nocturnal awakening, perhaps due to the cell loss in sleep control centers, this subject reported no awakening in the study period.

    Circadian graph shows a single favored bedtime in the 19th waking hour. As the average nighttime sleep episode is 5 hours long, the sleep-wake cycle lasts exactly 24 hours, and daily fluctuations in bedtime are minimal. As the green breakeven line and the red circadian line are nearly parallel in the span of 3 hours, this sleep pattern is very stable, and all delays in bedtime occur at the cost of sleep time without causing a phase delay.

    Stress can ruin the fabric of sleep. The following SleepChart graph demonstrates the impact of stress on a well-balanced 24 hour sleep pattern:. In the presented example, a middle-aged self-employed male wakes up naturally everyday around 6: However, on Jun 3, , a severe family problem threw the rhythm into chaos as evidenced by frequent nocturnal awakenings. The rhythm returned to the norm one month later as soon as the family conflict was resolved.

    Monophasic sleep graphs will often show a small siesta-time sleep propensity peak due to the fact that even the purest monophasic sleeper hits crisis days in which a postprandial nap brings a welcome relief.

    Due to their "crisis nature", such naps may last longer than in a habitual napper. The mid-day peak is particularly visible in irregular sleepers who show less discipline in sheltering their natural regular sleeping hours.

    Independent of the innate circadian cycle, light has a powerful impact on sleep. In particular, its phase-shifting capacity will always ensure that humans naturally gravitate towards sleeping at nighttime. Only the advent of lifestyle that involves electricity and 24h work cycles triggered the present epidemic of sleep disorders, which indirectly contributed to the appeal of concepts like "Uberman sleep".

    The preference for sleeping in the night can best be seen in irregular sleepers, esp. In those cases, using the circadian graph in SleepChart, we can see the impact of nighttime on the ability to initiate and maintain sleep.

    In the presented circadian graph, we see a clear preference for night sleep in free running sleep. The graph shows that sleep initiation blue line is easier at nighttime between 7 pm and 4 am, while the length of sleep red line is greatest if the sleep is initiated between 10 pm and 5 am.

    The graph can also be interpreted as a phase space. It shows how difficult it is to achieve "wasteful" 8 hours of sleep in an efficient free running sleep pattern. It can also be used to demonstrate that no trajectory in the phase space will lead to an entrained polyphasic sleep. However, in free running mode, it quickly stabilizes around a roughly biphasic rhythm , often with a degree of phase-shift dependent on the lifestyle. The timing of phase-shifting, excitatory and inhibitory stimuli, even if they are repetitive and regular, may still lead to a degree of chaos in the system.

    This occurs if the period of the stimulus cycle is different from the period of the entrained circadian rhythm. In contrast to the first graph, the second example can be used to argue that artificial lighting can virtually eliminate the impact of natural light on the cycle in a well-disciplined sleeper with a more regular cycle and better adherence to free running sleep rules.

    The question remains open to whether the nighttime sleep preference isn't to a large degree caused by social entrainment. A big clue comes from the fact that despite little difference in sleep initiation preference throughout the day, sleep initiated in the evening or in the night 8 pm - 6 am is still likely to last up to twice as long as sleep initiated at 3 pm.

    In this chapter, I will show why biphasic sleep is the best sleep pattern for high productivity and for the brain health. Most researchers agree that human adult circadian cycle is biphasic. In addition to sleep, one of the outward expressions of the circadian cycle are the changes in core body temperature. SuperMemo and SleepChart provide an excellent tool to verify the claim of the biphasic nature of human sleep-wake cycles.

    I have collected data from monophasic and biphasic sleepers that illustrate our biphasic nature. SuperMemo alone makes it possible to see the biphasic character of the learning performance throughout the day by charting grades over time without the need to include sleep log data.

    In the presented example, a monophasic sleeper, a busy father of two, shows the best learning performance in the early morning around 6 am, i. There is a big dip in average grade scores from 11 am to 1 pm. There is a second surge in the quality of learning at around pm:. SleepChart alone can also be used to demonstrate sleep biphasicity. Free running sleep logs can be subject to Fourier analysis to reveal the nature of sleep periodicity.

    An exemplary periodogram is shown in the graph:. Exemplary periodogram of human free running sleep reveals a biphasic nature of sleep periodicity. Two basic sleep frequencies dominate this particular sleep log.

    These roughly correspond to 12 and 24 hour cycles. If we employ both SleepChart and SuperMemo , we can see how waking performance changes in reference to the circadian phase. The biphasic grades graph from SuperMemo as shown earlier can be corrected for the circadian phase that can be pretty independent of the actual clock time, esp.

    In the presented example, a biphasic sleeper shows the best learning performance in the early morning:. SuperMemo for Windows makes it possible to correlate recall with the circadian phase as estimated by SleepChart , which has been integrated with the program. In the presented example, a biphasic year-old male shows two major peaks in alertness and learning quality during the day:.

    The first peak occurs in the hours from the estimated natural waking time, i. The second, slightly longer peek spans hours There is a pronounced depression in free recall at the 8th hour of the subjective day period i. The red line shows the estimated overall alertness derived from SleepChart's two component model. In this case, the estimated alertness nearly perfectly matches the recall measured during an actual learning process. The height of the two alertness peaks may differ in a monophasic sleeper, who will also show the same depression in recall around the 8th hour of the subjective waking day.

    However, characteristically, a monophasic sleeper may not get the same performance boost in the evening as biphasic sleepers due to the effects of the homeostatic sleep drive component. Even a few minute nap can result in a major boost in alertness.

    This has already been noticed by a prominent napping expert Dr David Dinges in his comprehensive surveys comparing habitual nappers with non-nappers Dinges [14]. To illustrate the difference between biphasic and monophasic sleepers, see an analogous recall graph in which a monophasic year-old non-napper shows the best performance in the morning hours with a sharp dip at the 8th hour of wakefulness coinciding with a subjective decline in cognitive function:.

    After a temporary dip, there is a sharp recovery, and a gradual decline in performance in the second half of the day. That decline is strongly accelerated by a homeostatic mechanism.

    The yellow line shows the estimated circadian component of alertness. In this case, the circadian benefits are muffled by the homeostatic decline in alertness, which is not shown in the graph.

    This is why the hypothetical circadian alertness and the actual alertness match only in the first half of the day. There is a biphasic twist to the two-process model of sleep regulation. In free running sleep , where sleep is a true expression of sleep propensity, it is possible to visualize both the homeostatic and the circadian components of sleep in a circadian graph:. In a habitual napper, the circadian biphasic nature is paradoxically expressed by the two-peak sleep propensity curve instead of the circadian curve.

    The reason for this role reversal is the physiological difference between the two circadian peaks in sleep propensity. In a habitual napper, sleep is initiated as easily at siesta time as it is initiated at night.

    However, the length of sleep at siesta time is very short usually min. In the presented graph, the blue line corresponds with the ability to initiate sleep at any given circadian time. On the horizontal axis, it aligns well with the alertness graphs displayed in SuperMemo as shown in earlier paragraphs. It aligns well with both the learning data, as well as with the two-process sleep model implemented in SleepChart. The red line corresponds with the ability to maintain sleep. It reveals what is not visible in the alertness graph shown earlier: In contrast, the period of subjective night is the only time of day when sleep can and should last longest usually no less than hours.

    The red peak is also the reason why polyphasic sleep adepts crave for "core sleep", wake up groggy, and need heavy alarm artillery to wake up in this critical subjective night period. David Dinges, in his surveys noticed, that napping more than once within a day was extremely rare.

    Most nappers took naps lasting min. Naps will be shorter if they are taken before the siesta peak. If they are taken after the peak, they will usually last longer, and may even integrate with the night sleep in cases of particularly large delay, or where there is a sleep deprivation, REM-sleep deficit , or any other form of "sleep debt".

    Dinges noticed that both appetitive habitual and replacement compensatory nappers tended to time their naps hours from waking see: Best timing of naps.

    Even though napping habits may differ, the circadian timing of the siesta trough seems to be pretty similar across the population Dinges [15]. It is important to note again that the evening boost in alertness is magnified by a nap, but shows up also in non-nappers and can easily be deconvoluted in the two-processes model into its homeostatic and circadian components as shown in the next two examples.

    In the first example, a free running female year-old non-napper shows an alertness dip in hours since waking. The red homeostatic estimate shows no dip and a steady decline over the waking day:. The yellow circadian estimate shows the expected position of the dip and the evening crest that explains a boost in the evening learning performance:.

    Both the evening recall boost and the evening circadian estimate align pretty well showing once again that the overall alertness depends on both homeostatic and circadian components of the sleep control system. Mid-day slump is as prominent in conditions of severe as well as mild sleep deprivation. This graph shows a mid-day alertness slump in a 26 hour sleep deprivation study Czeisler et al.

    The timing of the slump hours of waking period indicates that the preceding sleep episode was positioned suboptimally hence the need to interrupt sleep for the study. Natural awaking would probably take place hours after a forced awakening in lab conditions.

    The graph also shows that sleep inertia caused by forced awakening from Stage 2 NREM or REM sleep causes a much greater cognitive decline than 26 hours of sleep deprivation. From the above charts we can conclude that human circadian pattern is definitely biphasic. Here are the implications:. Charting the circadian cycle makes it possible to find best windows of time for brainwork. The following exemplary circadian graph was generated with SleepChart using a log of free running sleep:.

    Optimizing the timing of brainwork with respect to the circadian cycle. This exemplary graph was generated with the help of SleepChart on the basis of 3-year-long daily measurements of a free-running sleep rhythm. The horizontal axis expresses the number of hours from awakening note that the free running rhythm period is often longer than 24 hours.

    Light blue dots are actual sleep episode measurements with timing on the horizontal, and the length on the left vertical axis. Homeostatic sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to initiate sleep. Percent of the initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick blue line right-side calibrations of the vertical axis.

    Adenosine-related homeostatic sleep propensity increases in proportion to mental effort and can be partially cleared by caffeine, stress, etc.

    Circadian sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to maintain sleep. Average length of initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick red line left-side calibrations of the vertical axis. Mid-day slump in alertness is also circadian, but is biologically different and results in short sleep that does not register as red sleep maintenance peak.

    Sleep maintenance circadian component correlates 1 negatively with temperature, ACTH , cortisol , catecholamines , and 2 positively with: Optimum timing of brainwork requires both low homeostatic and circadian sleepiness. There are two quality alertness blocks during the day: Both are marked yellow in the graph. For best learning and best creative results use these yellow blocks. Caffeine can only be used to enhance alertness early in this optimum window brown.

    Later use will affect sleep caffeine half-life is about six hours. Optimum timing of exercise is not marked as it may vary depending on the optimum timing of zeitgebers e. For more details see: Biphasic nature of human sleep.

    Optimum timing of brainwork requires both high homeostatic alertness and high circadian alertness. Both are marked as yellow blocks in the graph above. For best learning and best creative results use these yellow blocks for brainwork.

    Caffeine can only be used to enhance alertness early in this optimum window. Optimum timing of exercise may vary depending on your exercise goals and the optimum timing of zeitgebers e. In this example, the stress block is followed by the exercise block to counterbalance the hormonal and neural effects of stress before the siesta. Unmarked white areas can be used for the lunch before siesta and fun time unrelated to work in the evening at a time when the ascending circadian sleepiness makes creative work ineffective.

    That white evening protective zone should be free from stress, alcohol , caffeine , etc. Recommended activities might include fun, games, relaxation, TV, reading, family, DIY, housework, etc. For inveterate workaholics, less challenging and stress-free jobs might also work ok. Brainwork is fun only if your brain is ready. Sleep is fun if you are ready. Rest and entertainment feel in the right place only after a productive day.

    Even a bit of stress can be fun if it is properly dosed and timed. You do not need to be an adrenaline junkie to enjoy your stress and exercise slots.

    There is little exaggeration in saying that a good understanding of the circadian cycle is the key to a happy and productive day! In addition to the circadian cycle variables, natural creativity cycle employs the fact that the neocortex operates in several modes determined by local fatigue, creative meandering, and neural optimization in sleep.

    During the day, natural transitions from high focus, to distraction, to high creativity, to rest will occur in proportion to the engagement of individual areas of the cortex, concept maps involved in mental computation , and the overall neural activation.

    The slanting green line separates the graph into the areas of phase advanced right and phase delays left. The line is determined by points in the graph where the waking time horizontal axis added to the sleep time left vertical axis equals to The place where the green breakeven line crosses the red sleep length line determines the optimum balanced sleep cycle of 24 hours.

    In the presented example, The greater the angle between the green and red lines, the harder it is to balance sleep and fit it into the 24h cycle of the rotating earth. In the example, adding waking hours does not shorten sleep much enough to make the balance easy. This implies that a religious adherence to a However, this shortened waking day may increase sleep latency and increase the probability of premature awakening, which can also tip the balance towards the phase delay. The vertical aqua line shows where the expected sleep time added to the waking time equals to 24 hours crossover with the green line representing a perfect hour day.

    For example, without medical intervention, only a large protective zone in the evening, early nap or no nap , and intense morning exercise can help balance the day in DSPS. This graph is based on data that is true solely for a free running sleep condition. If you use an alarm clock to regulate the timing of your sleep, this measurements and recommendations may not apply! In addition, timing and the amplitude of changes differ vastly between individuals!

    If you sleep against your natural rhythm you will often experience tiredness or drowsiness that can be resolved by adjusting the sleeping hours. In healthy individuals, the daytime alertness is primarily determined by:.

    All those factors are closely associated with the sleep phase. Free running sleep provides the best way to maximize the alertness throughout a waking day. Free running sleep is likely to shift the minimum temperature point from the early morning closer towards the middle of the subjective night. You should notice increased sleepiness before going to sleep and no sleep inertia upon awakening! If you cannot free-run your sleep, it is very important to understand the relationship between your homeostatic and circadian sleep drives as compiled in the table below.

    In the course of the day, you should move in sync between the yellow areas of the table, i. The gray areas illustrate when your sleep falls out of sync:. Wait for the arrival of the circadian phase. Delay going to sleep by hours. Adjust your sleep phase to your circadian e. Few upwardly mobile people in the modern rat-race society can live without an alarm clock. With a shot of strong coffee and round-the-clock stress, most people learn to live and survive with an alarm clock.

    That leaves a minority that wake up naturally. Increasingly, time becomes the most precious commodity in society where achievement is often associated with speed and perfect time-management.

    However, alarm clocks introduce harmful side effects: At worst, those factors will result in physical damage to the brain e. The art of time-management makes it possible to live at a high speed with an alarm clock at your side, and still be free from stress.

    However, the societal damage inflicted by alarm clocks and sleep deprivation is unforgivable. An alarm clock that interrupts your sleep damages your memories, your ability to learn, your creativity, your mood and temper, your relationships with other people, your ability to focus, and your overall intellectual performance! Dr Robert Stickgold has shown that people who learn a skill during the day do not show significant improvement until they get hours of good sleep [3].

    There was a noticeable correlation between the degree of improvement and the quality of sleep received. My own work with SleepChart also shows that the use of alarm clocks can dramatically reduce memory recall and consolidation. Forgetting is so painless that we rarely notice its effects.

    In a natural way, forgetting will proceed even if you get as much sleep as you need, and it is difficult to point to specific memories lost as a result of not sleeping enough. Moreover, sleep deprivation may leave your memories intact while their storage will be sub-optimum. The difference may be impossible to spot without measurement. We are more likely to notice sleepiness, reduced mental agility, or bad mood.

    Disrespect for sleep has reached biblical proportions. This is most noticeable in the US and other highly industrialized nations. The article suggests a "fresh" mind method that capitalizes on the fact that stress hormones help keep you alert. However, the only rational remedy for "rude awakenings" is simple: Jumping like a man on fire is not likely to have a positive effect on your creative potential!

    You may often notice that waking up with an alarm clock gives you a jumpstart for the day. You may then come to believe that using the alarm clock might help you stay alert later in the day. This is not the case. The alarm signal simply scares your brain into wakefulness, disrupting the carefully planned process of neural optimization that occurs in sleep.

    As a result, you get an immediate injection of adrenaline and your levels of ACTH and cortisol also increase. This is cortisol that peaks at awakening in natural sleeping rhythm that provides you with the fresh-mind impression.

    With passing time, this cheaply gained alertness will wear thin unless you continue abusing your physiology with more "remedies". You may use more scare tactics for keeping yourself alert, abuse caffeine, or even get a more profound effect with modafinil , cocaine , or amphetamines. Alertness should be achieved with the help of sufficient sleep, not despite the lack of sleep!

    Apart from your reduced ability to learn new things, all unnatural anti-drowsiness methods will produce a great deal of side effects that can be pretty damaging to your health in the long run. All efforts to overcome sleepiness by means other than sleep itself can be likened to a chase of the first high in the use of psychoactive substances.

    If you drink buckets of coffee, do pushups, pour cold water over your head, or slap your face, you only dip into the last reserves of your alertness hormones that only worsen the effects of deprivation after the effects of the stimulation wear off, which is usually a matter of minutes.

    Rarely can you get a boost lasting more than an hour, and the more you perk up, the lower you fall in the aftermath. If your life without an alarm clock may seem like an impossibility, you will probably need to use all methods in the book to be sure you get enough sleep and minimize the damage. If you need to wake up early at the cost of your brain, avoid the insomnia trap! Insomnia trap is a vicious circle of:. It is better to go to sleep at a natural hour i. For a solution to the insomnia trap see: Curing DSPS and insomnia.

    If you cannot reset your phase and still feel tired when getting up early on a regular basis, consider choosing a job that is acceptable for your body, not the other way around. Your long-term health and well-being is at stake. If you absolutely cannot live without an alarm clock, you can at least start from changing your mindset about the importance of sleep and ensure you do not impose wrong habits on your children.

    Perhaps the young ones will be lucky enough to work in a flex-time system that will make it possible to get sufficient amount of undisturbed sleep. At least, do not set a bad example! President Bill Clinton was woken up twice by telephone during the night of April 22, before the infamous I.

    He was probably the most often disrupted and sleep deprived president in history. Only after a heart surgery did Clinton take diet, sleep and real exercise seriously.

    Those interrupted nights would definitely influence his performance and the quality of his decisions! Has anybody thought of a rule: Do not wake up the president? A rule that could only be revoked in a true national emergency? He was also woken up after a suicide bombing in Jerusalem in It seems that only Ronald Reagan had pretty strong rules for protecting his own sleep. He also famously napped during some cabinet meetings. He slept through a couple of international events without an apparent negative impact on his somewhat delayed decision-making.

    Critics would say he slept through the entire Iran-Contra affair. Was Reagan so protective of sleep because he understood the role of sleep better, or perhaps he was just a bit lazier than other presidents? However, he sure set a good example. An alarm clock can't be that bad for you because of the simple fact that most people use it and I never noticed any problem with them: Everyone in my family has been using one since they were children, and no one suddenly went crazy or began to mutate into a monster yet!

    If the intrusion into natural sleep is not large e. Alarm clock will do far more damage if it cuts deep into the middle of the night sleep. You can compare the use of alarm clocks to smoking or eating hot dogs. The harm is not great enough to be instantly noticeable.

    It took the public many years to largely accept that "smoking is bad" or "fast food is bad". It is hard to quantify the degree of damage. However, as we move to knowledge society where our intellectual performance becomes increasingly important, the effects of sleep deprivation will come under closer scrutiny and alarm clocks are bound to gradually fall out of favor.

    Unlike hot dogs, they are already universally hated by their users. Most people are able to somewhat adapt their sleep to their schedules if their routines are regular enough.

    When those people need to resort to the use of the alarm clock, they cut less of their sleep and the damage is proportionally smaller. Nevertheless, we should always strive at eliminating alarm clocks altogether. Most of all, we should protect our kids from suffering interrupted sleep! The natural sleep-wake cycle makes you feel less alert at mid-day.

    This period can easily be visualized using EEG measurements. In many tropical, subtropical, and Mediterranean countries this is the time for siesta. The drop in alertness can be magnified by a rich meal and a short nap is likely to quickly restore full alertness. However, the industrial nations do not seem ready to adopt the healthy habit of a postprandial nap. Just the opposite, when the Mexican parliament debated the law on statutory napping, politicians and comedians north of the border had a good laugh about "lazy Latin Americans".

    Siesta Awareness in the UK abruptly cancelled their National Siesta Day upon a publication from China that showed that diabetics nap more. Napping is smart, and yet nappers are often considered lazy, or weak. The self-improvement guru, Tony Robbins, provides a typical misguided get-up-and-go advice on napping: Press ups will improve circulation and raise the level of catecholamines. This will make you feel more alert for a moment. However, only a nap can provide a true neural boost to your cognitive powers.

    Nap is better than exercise. Nap is better than caffeine. There are few theories on the evolutionary purpose of the mid-day dip in alertness. Most people believe that humans, as all other highly developed tropical animals, have developed a siesta habit as a way of getting around the midday heat.

    This explanation has also some cultural background as napping is by far less popular in moderate and cold climates. However, the alertness dip can be resolved by a short nap in minutes. This can make us active again long before the mid-day heat is over. Another explanation is that the alertness dip is an atavistic remainder of the polyphasic sleeping mode that might have characterized human ancestors.

    Many animals and newborn babies sleep many times during the day. This might seem advantageous for optimizing memory circuits. However, consolidating sleep into a single night rest period might have offered some evolutionary advantage too. Early humans might have been less efficient in hunting and gathering activities at nighttime. This is why it might be advantageous to spend nights on memory optimization. Possibly, the consolidation of sleep went gradually from polyphasic sleep, through biphasic sleep to semi-monophasic sleep in modern humans.

    Actually, similar consolidation can be observed as we get older. By the time of adulthood we are more or less monophasic with a clear dip in alertness that may be resolved with a short nap. As we near retirement, we again seem to tend to become biphasic. This may be a result of the fact that working people are forced to suppress their biphasic tendency.

    We remain strongly biphasic throughout the lifetime , and the monophasic model has largely been imposed by industrialization. When I look at learning performance data collected with SuperMemo, I see that the homeostatic decline in cognitive powers throughout the day is steep enough to provide an alternative explanation: As a result, we have developed a half-way sleep system that ensures the essential fully blown nighttime sleep, and a window for an optional mid-day alertness booster.

    As the circadian component of sleep drive is associated with some physiological functions of sleep, a system with homeostatic napping might not have been equally beneficial. As for the speed of homeostatic decline in alertness, it could be inherent to the networks involved and might depend on energy reserves, supply of neurotransmitters, size of the networks involved, etc.

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