Whole foods like fruits and vegetables contain far more of these beneficial micronutrients than the processed foods, refined grains, starches. Micronutrients are different from the basic protein, fat and carb things signals from the brain to working muscles, making choline a vital nutrient for A diet rich in Vitamin D sources, like eggs or mushrooms, should provide. The foods you eat contain a complex arrangement of micronutrients and Digestive enzymes are critical to the absorption of nutrients from foods. been linked to numerous digestive disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ( 5).
in 5. Critical Micronutrients High It Is
Children who received the fortified beverage had significantly greater weight and height increments over the study period 58 and a reduced risk of stunting 57 compared to children who received the nonfortified beverage. Another study worth noting is one conducted among low-income, Chinese schoolchildren aged 6—9 y 59 , which looked at the effects of daily supplementation with zinc 20 mg versus multiple micronutrients half of the RDA for seven minerals and 10 vitamins and one-quarter of the RDA for folate with and without zinc for 10 wk.
A placebo group was not included, iron was not included in the multiple-micronutrient treatment and only knee height was reported as a growth outcome. These results suggest that micronutrients other than zinc were limiting bone growth in the study population.
In summary, of the five trials examined, four demonstrated a positive growth response to multiple-micronutrient supplementation. The positive growth response found in the two studies conducted among infants and preschool children was significant only among certain subgroups of children i. The effect size for change in linear growth in the subgroups for which positive responses were found in these studies Mexico, 0.
The abstract reported from Guatemala did not report specifically on effects among possible vulnerable subgroups of children, but suggested that these factors were controlled for in the analysis. It is not possible to determine which micronutrients in these studies were limiting to growth, and clearly, this would depend on the existence and severity of various micronutrient deficiencies.
Based on the results of the meta-analysis of zinc supplementation on growth, it is clear that zinc is a common growth-limiting nutrient. The conclusions of the single-micronutrient trials confirm that zinc deficiency and severe iron and vitamin A deficiencies are causal to growth retardation. However, the study conducted among schoolchildren in China 59 and others 60 suggest that zinc alone was not the primary growth-limiting nutrient. It is possible that micronutrient deficiencies other than zinc, iron and vitamin A also cause growth faltering as the latter studies did not select for anemia or severe vitamin A deficiency.
Perhaps the main question to be asked by the review in this section is whether animal source foods can be used to provide additional micronutrients sufficient to prevent or limit growth faltering in children living in high-risk environments. Very few studies have been designed to answer this question directly. Several studies have used interventions that included increased intake of animal source foods. However, the intervention designs varied greatly and most included components other than provision of animal source foods, such as additional micronutrients or nutrition education, to improve young child feeding practices.
The studies included in this review are randomized intervention trials with a concurrently enrolled control group and they lasted at least 8 wk. Two studies were identified that provided food supplements plus additional micronutrients in the intervention 2 , One study was conducted in Guatemala, where four villages received either a skim milk—based, high-protein, high-energy supplement atole or a no-protein, low-energy supplement fresco , where both supplements contained additional micronutrients 2 , The supplements were distributed in a central location in each village and were available on demand to all members of the community.
Intake of the supplements was registered daily for all children under 7 y of age. Supplementation with atole resulted in 2. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and infants resulting from that pregnancy were followed for 3 y.
The families were randomly assigned to receive either no supplement or food supplements consisting of dry skim milk, enriched bread and vegetable oil, plus iron and vitamin A supplementation for the enrolled children.
At 3 mo, a difference in weight of g in favor of the supplemented group and at 6 mo a difference in length of 0.
Among unsupplemented children, diarrhea was significantly negatively associated with length; however, supplementation completely offset the negative effect of diarrheal disease on growth.
Two other studies that provided food supplements containing animal source foods plus additional micronutrients were identified. Although these did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the review, their results are worth mentioning. The supplement was given during the diarrheal episode and for 1 wk during convalescence Although the intervention was administered for a median of only 17 d, the children's growth response was monitored for a median of 6.
The treatment group had a weight gain exceeding that of the control group by Not surprisingly, there was no significant increase in knee-heel height during the intervention period. However, it was significantly greater in the treatment group 7. Another study was conducted among Ghanaian infants to evaluate the effect of feeding centrally produced infant cereals of varying nutritional composition on nutritional status Unfortunately, it was not possible to include a concurrently enrolled control group, so a separate cross-sectional study was used as a comparison.
Breastfed infants received one of the following porridges: No differences were observed in length or weight among the four intervention groups. However, LAZ and WAZ among all of the supplemented infants pooled were greater than among those in the cross-sectional study group. It is possible that all of the supplemental food types tested were equally sufficient to increase the intake of growth-limiting nutrients.
However, the authors also suggested that the provision of the hygienically prepared supplemental foods in vacuum flasks may have reduced exposure to diarrheal pathogens and that more prompt use of clinic facilities may have been encouraged indirectly due to frequent morbidity monitoring during the intervention. It was not possible to assess the contribution of decreased morbidity rates to the apparently improved growth among the supplemented children.
The three controlled trials described above produced positive effects on growth, and two of the studies 61 , 63 suggested that the growth impact was at least partially mediated through attenuation of the negative effects of diarrheal morbidity on growth. The main difference between these studies and those that provided micronutrient supplements alone is that these trials also included supplementary energy and protein, which also may be limiting to growth and may contribute to improved catch-up during convalescence.
As both food supplements and micronutrients were provided simultaneously in the intervention, it is not possible to ascertain whether the nutritious food supplement alone could produce similar benefits without the provision of additional micronutrients. Two studies conducted nutrition education interventions that included a component to increase the intake of animal source foods.
A year-long intervention was conducted in China that assessed the impact of nutrition education and growth monitoring activities on growth among children from their first year of life The educational component included specific messages to encourage exclusive breastfeeding for 4—6 mo, after which time, hard-boiled egg yolk should be offered to the infant daily.
It was reported that more women in the intervention group could cite important foods to include in the complementary diet and appropriate patterns of breastfeeding, and more children in the intervention group received egg yolk daily.
Infants in the intervention group had significantly better growth in weight and length than the control group. The increase in intake of egg yolk by young children may have contributed to increased intake of growth-limiting nutrients in this population.
However, it cannot be determined to what extent this, or the other intervention activities, contributed to the greater growth observed. An intervention conducted in India offered a milk- and cereal-based supplement plus nutrition counseling, or visitation only, for 8 mo among infants recruited at 4 mo of age Children receiving the supplement had a weight increment 0.
However, children in the intervention group also had higher rates of diarrhea and were breastfed less frequently than the control children. In this case, the increased diarrheal infections may have been caused by use of contaminated water needed to dilute the food supplement and possibly by the displacement of breast milk. This study suggests that, in addition to providing increased nutritional intake, simultaneous interventions to improve water quality also may be needed to achieve more effective prevention of morbidity and associated growth faltering.
Only four studies were identified where a single food supplement was provided to children in the form of milk powder or formula without additional micronutrients, three of which were conducted in the same population group. Malcolm 67 reported results of two food-supplementation trials conducted among children in a boarding school in Bundi, New Guinea. The first study compared changes in height, weight and skinfold thickness between two classes of children receiving their regular diet of 3 meals daily of taro and sweet potato tubers or a skim milk powder supplement providing 25 g of protein daily for 5 mo.
Because the children's normal diet was based almost exclusively on tubers with relatively low protein content, it was hypothesized that protein was limiting to the growth of these children. These results are consistent with protein, or other growth-limiting nutrients in milk, being limiting to the accrual of lean tissues, whereas additional energy provided as fat apparently contributed to fat accumulation. These results were corroborated by a later trial conducted in the same area where children receiving a skim milk powder supplement also demonstrated improvements in indices of skeletal development Supplemented children gained an additional 0.
It was noted that the gains in growth were greater among younger children than they were among older children. Based on the results of these three trials, it appears that milk supplements may provide a good source of nutrients that are limiting to growth in some settings, although the specific growth-limiting nutrients were not identified. It is difficult to summarize interventions studying the efficacy of supplementary animal source foods on prevention of growth faltering because of the many different study designs used and because most of the interventions included other components that may have contributed to the effects observed.
The only examples of animal source foods solely contributing to growth promotion are the trials that provided milk supplements alone: It also is unclear to what extent additional micronutrients would have provided further benefits to growth. In any case, all of the trials that included food supplements, with or without additional micronutrients, reported positive impacts on growth.
The essential role for several micronutrients in growth has been demonstrated clearly by both animal- and clinical-based human trials of supplementation with single micronutrients. The three micronutrients with the strongest relationship to growth, iron, zinc and vitamin A, are commonly deficient in low-income populations where dietary quality often is poor. The positive impact of community-based supplementation trials reviewed in this article indeed confirms that iron, zinc and vitamin A are common growth-limiting nutrients.
However, iron and vitamin A appear to be limiting to growth only when deficiencies of these nutrients are severe, whereas growth may be limited only by mild to moderate deficiency of zinc. This is consistent with the known metabolic and physiologic activity of these nutrients: Although single-micronutrient supplementation trials have been useful to confirm the effects of specific micronutrients on growth outcomes, programs that provide supplements of only one nutrient may not be the most cost-effective way of preventing growth faltering and associated adverse health outcomes because of the co-existence of multiple-micronutrient deficiencies in many populations.
Multiple-micronutrient supplements are expected to be more efficacious in preventing growth faltering in at-risk populations, as all possible growth-limiting micronutrient deficiencies may be corrected simultaneously. Although the few available multiple-micronutrient supplementation trials have demonstrated positive effects on growth, in some cases these effects were limited to specific subgroups of the study population. Also, the interaction of various micronutrients and the potential negative effect of some minerals on the absorption of others e.
From a programmatic perspective, it may be more desirable to consider intervention options other than supplement use. Animal source foods provide the richest and most bioavailable sources of several micronutrients. Some of the food-based trials have demonstrated that at least part of the positive effects of the intervention on growth occurred by improving catch-up growth after diarrheal illness 61 , Although it is conceivable that the additional micronutrients provided by the pharmacological supplements or animal source food supported catch-up growth during convalescence, the supplemental foods also would have provided additional energy and protein, which may contribute to improved growth in the face of frequent infections 71 , Unfortunately, very few studies have been reported that confirm the evidence from cross-sectional studies suggesting that intake of animal source foods is associated with better growth in children.
Several intervention studies have included both food supplements and additional multiple micronutrients, but it remains uncertain as to whether the supplemental food source alone could have been equally effective at preventing growth faltering.
The few interventions that provided animal source foods alone were restricted to those that provided milk powder. Although milk powder may provide some additional micronutrients, it is not as good a source of readily available iron and zinc or of vitamin A, as compared to beef for example. Most of the studies that reported positive effects of milk-powder supplementation were conducted in Papua, New Guinea, where protein was likely to be a major growth-limiting nutrient in this population because low-protein tubers are the main staple food.
However, in many populations where protein intakes are sufficient, such as those that rely on cereal grains, milk powder may not be as effective in preventing growth faltering. Clearly, more studies are needed to determine the efficacy of different animal source foods, including meat and fish, in a variety of geographical settings. With respect to program development, it would be useful to compare directly the relative impact of micronutrients and nutritious food supplements in the prevention of growth faltering.
If food supplements prove to be comparably effective for many children in a particular setting, greater confidence may be placed in the efficacy of food-based approaches, thus providing another feasible option. A useful study design to determine whether micronutrients from animal source foods can improve growth relative to pharmacological micronutrients alone would be to employ a four-cell design with an animal source food, micronutrients alone, an animal source food supplement plus additional micronutrients and a parallel control group.
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Growth, appetite, sequence of pathological signs and survival following the induction of rapid, synchronous vitamin A deficiency in the rat. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children.
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Long-term supplementation with iron does not enhance growth in malnourished Bangladeshi children. School-administered weekly iron supplementation: Effect on the growth and hemoglobin status on non-anemic Bolivian school-age children. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. The role of vitamin A in reducing child mortality and morbidity and improving growth. Impact of vitamin A-fortified monosodium glutamate on health, growth and survival of children: A controlled field trial.
Diarrhea, respiratory infections and growth are not affected by a weekly low-dose vitamin A supplement: A masked controlled field trial in children in Southern India. Impact of large dose vitamin A supplementation on childhood diarrhea, respiratory disease and growth. Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity among preschool children in South India. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana.
The impact of vitamin A supplementation on physical growth of children is dependent on season. Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of Indonesian preschool children results from a randomized controlled trial. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of preschool children in the Sudan. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth.
Vitamin A supplementation but not deworming improves growth of malnourished preschool children in Eastern Zaire. Effect of daily and weekly micronutrient supplementation on micronutrient deficiencies and growth in young Vietnamese children. Effect of a micronutrient fortified beverage on anemia and stunting in Tanzanian schoolchildren.
Trial of a micronutrient dietary supplement to control vitamin A, iron and iodine deficiencies in Tanzania. Impact of a micronutrient dietary supplement on growth of school children in Tanzania. Effects of repletion with zinc and other micronurients on neuropsychologic performance and growth of Chinese children. Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: Effect of supplementary feeding on recovery from mild-to moderate wasting in preschool children.
Community-based controlled trial of dietary management of children with persistent diarrhea: A randomized, community-based trial of the effects of improved, centrally processed complementary foods on growth and micronutrient status of Ghanaian infants from 6 to 12 months of age. If your diet is lacking leafy greens or eggs, consider choline supplements or look for foods fortified with choline. Luckily, this micronutrient gets a ton of attention. Vitamin D aids in calcium absorption and helps with maintaining bone strength, both of which are particularly important for women.
Adequate Vitamin D intake is also associated with preventing diseases, like cancer, heart disease and high blood pressure. A diet rich in Vitamin D sources, like eggs or mushrooms, should provide enough of this micronutrient. Although too much sodium has been linked to high blood pressure and heart disease, most runners know that sodium is part of a healthy fueling routine. Sodium is the main electrolyte lost in sweat, and many runners lose an average of one gram of sodium per liter of sweat.
The cells rely on sodium to maintain fluid balance, which is why hydration is not just about fluid intake, but also about sodium intake. With the standard American diet, most people can get the recommended 2, mg of sodium per day. Every woman, regardless of age, should think about their calcium intake on a daily basis.
Inside the body, calcium is most commonly found in bones and in the blood.
Micronutrients for Crop Production
Knowledge of critical periods and related critical micronutrients might help to . also occurs increasingly in high-income countries, e.g. in the US and Europe . Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients and vital for human also play a role in preventing and fighting disease (4, 5, 6). . Research has linked low blood levels of selenium to a higher risk of heart disease. Subclinical deficiency, often of multiple micronutrients, is more difficult to .. In a small study on patients in intensive care with severe infection, large doses of .. 5. Food Standards Agency Eat well, be well. London: FSA, 6. Hoare J.