What are currently the best ways to treat cannabis overconsumption symptoms such as anxiety? New research may lead to better options to. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory . To date, the quality of evidence supportive of cannabinoid treatment for . to this finding of a strong association between edible use and overconsumption. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, Here we review the current state of the science related to the adverse health . the idea that marijuana is a gateway drug, other drugs, such as alcohol and nicotine, In the Monitoring the Future survey of high-school students, % of.
Future – and Treatments Current Overconsumption Cannabis
However, the number of young people who believe regular marijuana use is risky is decreasing. Read more about marijuana as medicine in our DrugFacts: People smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes joints or in pipes or water pipes bongs. They also smoke it in blunts—emptied cigars that have been partly or completely refilled with marijuana. To avoid inhaling smoke, some people are using vaporizers. These devices pull the active ingredients including THC from the marijuana and collect their vapor in a storage unit.
A person then inhales the vapor, not the smoke. Some vaporizers use a liquid marijuana extract. People can mix marijuana in food edibles , such as brownies, cookies, or candy, or brew it as a tea. A newly popular method of use is smoking or eating different forms of THC-rich resins see " Marijuana Extracts ".
These extracts can deliver extremely large amounts of THC to the body, and their use has sent some people to the emergency room. Another danger is in preparing these extracts, which usually involves butane lighter fluid. A number of people have caused fires and explosions and have been seriously burned from using butane to make extracts at home. Marijuana has both short-and long-term effects on the brain. When a person smokes marijuana, THC quickly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream.
The blood carries the chemical to the brain and other organs throughout the body. The body absorbs THC more slowly when the person eats or drinks it.
In that case, they generally feel the effects after 30 minutes to 1 hour. These natural chemicals play a role in normal brain development and function. Marijuana overactivates parts of the brain that contain the highest number of these receptors. This causes the "high" that people feel. Long-Term Effects Marijuana also affects brain development.
When people begin using marijuana as teenagers, the drug may impair thinking, memory, and learning functions and affect how the brain builds connections between the areas necessary for these functions. Researchers are still studying how long marijuana's effects last and whether some changes may be permanent.
For example, a study from New Zealand conducted in part by researchers at Duke University showed that people who started smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing marijuana use disorder lost an average of 8 IQ points between ages 13 and The lost mental abilities didn't fully return in those who quit marijuana as adults.
Those who started smoking marijuana as adults didn't show notable IQ declines. This suggests that the IQ decline in marijuana users may be caused by something other than marijuana, such as shared familial factors e.
The amount of THC in marijuana has been increasing steadily over the past few decades. Higher THC levels may explain the rise in emergency room visits involving marijuana use. The popularity of edibles also increases the chance of harmful reactions.
Edibles take longer to digest and produce a high. Therefore, people may consume more to feel the effects faster, leading to dangerous results. Higher THC levels may also mean a greater risk for addiction if people are regularly exposing themselves to high doses. Marijuana use has also been linked to other mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts among teens.
However, study findings have been mixed. While it's possible to fail a drug test after inhaling secondhand marijuana smoke, it's unlikely. Studies show that very little THC is released in the air when a person exhales. Research findings suggest that, unless people are in an enclosed room, breathing in lots of smoke for hours at close range, they aren't likely to fail a drug test.
Similarly, it's unlikely that secondhand marijuana smoke would give nonsmoking people in a confined space a high from passive exposure. Studies have shown that people who don't use marijuana report only mild effects of the drug from a nearby smoker, under extreme conditions breathing in lots of marijuana smoke for hours in an enclosed room.
More research is needed to know if secondhand marijuana smoke has similar health risks as secondhand tobacco smoke. A recent study on rats suggests that secondhand marijuana smoke can do as much damage to the heart and blood vessels as secondhand tobacco smoke. What they do know is that the toxins and tar found in marijuana smoke could affect vulnerable people, such as children or people with asthma.
Compared to those who don't use marijuana, those who frequently use large amounts report the following:. People also report less academic and career success. For example, marijuana use is linked to a higher likelihood of dropping out of school.
Use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are likely to come before use of other drugs. For example, when rodents are repeatedly exposed to THC when they're young, they later show an enhanced response to other addictive substances—such as morphine or nicotine—in the areas of the brain that control reward, and they're more likely to show addiction-like behaviors.
Read more about marijuana as a gateway drug in our Marijuana Research Report. An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of the drug to produce life-threatening symptoms or death. There are no reports of teens or adults dying from marijuana alone. However, some people who use marijuana can feel some very uncomfortable side effects, especially when using marijuana products with high THC levels. People have reported symptoms such as anxiety and paranoia, and in rare cases, an extreme psychotic reaction which can include delusions and hallucinations that can lead them to seek treatment in an emergency room.
While a psychotic reaction can occur following any method of use, emergency room responders have seen an increasing number of cases involving marijuana edibles. So they consume more of the edible, trying to get high faster or thinking they haven't taken enough. In addition, some babies and toddlers have been seriously ill after ingesting marijuana or marijuana edibles left around the house. Marijuana use can lead to the development of a substance use disorder, a medical illness in which the person is unable to stop using even though it's causing health and social problems in their life.
Severe substance use disorders are also known as addiction. Research suggests that between 9 and 30 percent of those who use marijuana may develop some degree of marijuana use disorder. Many people who use marijuana long term and are trying to quit report mild withdrawal symptoms that make quitting difficult. No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but behavioral support has been shown to be effective. Examples include therapy and motivational incentives providing rewards to patients who remain drug-free.
Continuing research may lead to new medications that help ease withdrawal symptoms, block the effects of marijuana, and prevent relapse. Published September 8, Accessed January 18, As more states legalize recreational cannabis, we can expect that more people inexperienced in edibles or who are exposed to a wider array of products may accidentally take too much. The recommended protocol for someone presenting in the ER with cannabis overconsumption is to treat with a sedative such as a benzodiazepine and observe until symptoms subside.
Those with access to benzodiazepines at home may end up using these if they feel that they are having symptoms of anxiety after taking cannabis. Although sedatives may reduce the anxiety caused by cannabis overconsumption, there is one large drawback.
You will remain intoxicated and may be even more so. Driving or doing anything requiring energy or coordination is completely out of the question. Time must be allowed for the effect of both drugs to wear off. This may surprise you — but a near perfect antidote to cannabis overconsumption already exists. It has already been tested in thousands of people and at one point was an approved drug in Europe.
This drug is called rimonabant — it is an antagonist actually an inverse agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. In other words, it binds the CB1 receptor without activating it and blocks THC from binding and activating the receptor. It essentially works the same way as naloxone does at the mu opioid receptor to reverse heroin overdoses.
Rimonabant was developed as an anti-obesity medication, but it was pulled from the market in after serious psychiatric side effects were observed. However, those side effects only occurred with chronic dosing. A clinical study has already shown that rimonabant blocks the acute effects of cannabis in humans. Unlike sedatives, you would not become even more drowsy and have to wait a long time for the effects to wear off.
Or we could get this crowdsourced? These scenarios all seem unlikely to me, but anything is possible. However, there are still no available studies to assess its efficacy. It may hold promise for treating cannabis overdose. I know it sounds funny at first — treating cannabis overdose with more cannabinoids.
However, it can help with certain side effects such as anxiety and paranoia. The advantages of CBD are that it is safe, widely available, and arguably legal. Absorption may be relatively slow if taken orally, which could be tough for people who need immediate relief. In , there was a huge step forward in our understanding of how our brains regulate cannabinoid signaling.
In response to CB1 receptor activation, our brains start synthesizing pregnenolone, which then blocks further CB1 receptor activation. When synthesis of pregnenolone was blocked in mice, all of the effects of THC were amplified. Activation of the CB1 receptor stimulates multiple pathways of intracellular signaling.
Pregnenolone is freely available to be sold in the US as a dietary supplement. So you would think that this would be an obvious choice for cannabis overdose. However, there are challenges with the absorption and stability of pregnenolone taken orally. Since little pregnenolone is absorbed and it is rapidly converted to other steroids, very little pregnenolone makes it to your brain intact. If proven effective, this would be an excellent treatment option.
The Use of Cannabis for Headache Disorders
This current situation warrants an exploration of additional treatment in the use of cannabis in the treatment of headache to inform future clinical guidelines. . 30 Outpatients with medication-overuse headache, Clinical Trial. Cannabis-linked emergency room visits are on the rise, but the best current edition: US edition However, the outcome of overconsumption is far more likely to look like what If you do overdo it, the best treatment doesn't involve medicine . Cannabis grown from yeast: does the future of pot lie in a lab?. According to the Monitoring the Future survey, rates of marijuana use among middle smoking marijuana heavily in their teens and had an ongoing marijuana use . No medications are currently available to treat marijuana use disorder, but.