The media attention generated by its effect on severely ill children gave . It is well known that CBD and THC are not produced as such by the. We'll take a look at two compounds, CBD vs THC, and compare them on a number of different levels. Both may THC causes temporary side effects, such as. With all the focus on the benefits and effects of CBD, many wonder if there That is because it is not psychoactive like THC, and its side effects That said, there are small chances that CBD oil may cause certain side effects.
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One case-control study has shown an association between the occurrence of a first psychotic episode and the use of high-potency cannabis skunk or sinsemilla Patients with psychotic symptoms had more frequently used skunk or sinsemilla cannabis instead of hashish than had non-patients. Patients experiencing first-episode psychosis were also more likely to be daily users of high-potency cannabis than were controls.
This finding suggests that both the daily use and consumption of cannabis with a high-THC and low-CBD content increase the risk of developing psychosis. Cannabis use can lower the age of a first psychotic episode 53 , Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest an adverse effect of cannabis use on the course of the disease in terms of relapse, exacerbation of symptoms and number of hospitalizations 38 , 55 — With the exception of a study by Di Forti et al.
The extent to which the presence or absence of CBD in cannabis will influence the early occurrence of a first-episode psychosis or to what extent it will affect the course of the disease is, therefore, unknown. Anxiety and panic attacks are the most commonly reported adverse reactions following the use of cannabis. Inexperience and use in a foreign environment play a major role Though anxiety and panic attacks are often reported, many users take cannabis for its fear-inhibiting effects [for a review, see Ref.
THC seems to be responsible for the anxiogenic effects of cannabis [e. By the early s, it had been shown that THC led to a significant increase of acute anxiety symptoms, while CBD had no effect The results from later studies, however, were inconsistent; the anxiety-reducing effect of CBD was not found in all subsequent studies.
Ilan and colleagues investigated the contribution of THC and CBD to the subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana In their study, 23 healthy marijuana users were randomly assigned to a low- or a high-THC group and low or high levels of CBD.
In the four sessions under blinded conditions, subjects smoked marijuana cigarettes containing placebo no active cannabinoids or cigarettes containing THC with low or high levels of CBD. Compared with the placebo, cannabis caused a slight short-term increase in anxiety symptoms VAS.
These effects were greatest in the high-THC condition and appeared to diminish when the CBD content was high, but this latter effect was not statistically significant. Because this increase in anxiety was generally mild and because not all subjects responded with fear, a follow-up analysis with only the anxious subjects was performed.
There was a non-significant trend for less anxiety in the high- versus the low-CBD condition in subjects who reported higher levels of anxiety after smoking the joints. A reason for the absence of significant results in this study might be that neither the THC nor the CBD concentrations were high enough to have significant effects.
In the studies in which anxiety-reducing effects were reported, high oral doses of CBD typically were involved. Cannabis that is used for recreational purposes does not contain such high amounts of CBD.
People with cannabis dependence are more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder and, in particular, from social anxiety disorder [for a review, see Ref. So far, studies investigating the relationship between cannabis dependence and anxiety disorders have not clarified the nature of the relationship in question: In two experiments using patients suffering from social anxiety disorder along with healthy volunteers as controls, the subjects had to speak in front of a video camera, regardless of whether they were under the influence of CBD.
In this experimental situation, CBD was effective in preventing symptoms of anxiety, both in healthy volunteers and in patients with social anxiety disorder 41 , CBD suppressed the symptoms of anxiety, similar to the action of the sedatives diazepam and ipsapirone.
Overview of studies investigating the effect of cannabidiol or cannabidiol in combination with THC on psychological functions in humans. Studies in which cannabis extracts have been used are not included. Several studies have shown that cannabis and THC dose-dependently cause cognitive and psychomotor function impairments along with memory, selective attention, locomotion, perception, and response impairments 83 — Little experimental research exists on the effects of CBD alone or in conjunction with THC on cognitive and psychomotor functions.
Morgan and colleagues identified a few such effects on memory functions, but the research on this aspect of CBD has inconsistent findings 45 , Although no human studies have specifically investigated the long-term effects of the combined effect of THC and CBD on cognitive functioning, there are indications that CBD may have some neuroprotective properties. Much weaker attentional bias for cannabis-related stimuli was found for users of cannabis with a high CBD content than for users of cannabis with a low-CBD content.
The researchers concluded that cannabis with a high CBD content confers less risk for developing an addiction than cannabis with a low-CBD content Whether smoking hashish in practice diminishes addiction risk in comparison with smoking highly potent marijuana should be further investigated. Many recreational users of cannabis will never be faced with serious or permanent health deficits. However, for some users, the use of cannabis may cause undesirable psychological side effects, such as cognitive impairment, anxiety and paranoia, and an increased risk of developing chronic psychosis and addiction.
Despite all of the publicity surrounding cannabis, remarkably few studies have been performed that examined the relationship between a possibly harmful effect of THC and a possibly protective effect of CBD. The few studies that exist on the effects of CBD show that this cannabinoid can counteract some of the negative effects of THC, although their results have not always been consistent.
The evidence favoring a beneficial effect of CBD therefore merits further investigation in studies in which the amounts and ratios of CBD and THC correspond to the daily practices of recreational cannabis use. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Published online Oct Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Box , AS, Utrecht, Netherlands e-mail: This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders and Behavioral Dyscontrol, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.
Received May 31; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Pharmacology Cannabis sativa contains more than 80 different cannabinoids, of which THC is principally responsible for the pharmacological actions, including the psychoactive effects.
Toxicology of CBD Research on the pharmacological and toxicological properties of CBD has been performed on different types of animals. Psychological Effects The effects of cannabis on psychological functioning mainly concern psychotic symptoms, anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning, and the potential for abuse and dependency. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Overview of studies investigating the effect of cannabidiol or cannabidiol in combination with THC on psychological functions in humans.
CBD exerts its effects via limbic and paralimbic areas Nicholson et al. Conclusion Cannabis is not a safe drug. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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And indeed, several studies have shown that deltatetrahydrocannabinol THC , the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, can induce things like memory loss and may even trigger schizophrenia in those who are predisposed. But numerous studies have shown that another, non-psychoactive, compound in cannabis, cannabidiol CBD , can protect against the harmful effects of THC. The mice who were given THC alone showed problems in working memory and increased anxiety, while those who only received CBD showed no cognitive changes.
Amazingly, however, all cognitive abnormalities were also prevented in the group that was given the mix of both THC and CBD.
The potency of cannabis has drastically changed over the last two decades, according to an analysis done in by the University of Mississippi and the University of West Georgia.
Back in , according to the researchers, THC levels averaged 4 percent in cannabis used recreationally across the U. That number has risen to over 12 percent by The analysis also found that over the same two-decade period, the amount of CBD in cannabis fell, going from an average of 0. As growers compete to create strains with ever-higher concentrations of THC levels, the result is an abundance of marijuana that is now so strong that it can cause cognitive problems and psychological distress in some segments of the population.
The finding that CBD protects against these adverse effects is cause to celebrate. CBD is a non-toxic, non-psychoactive, and incredibly abundant substance that is found not only in flowering marijuana but also in hemp, the fast-growing fibrous variety of cannabis used for everything from clothing to paper.
Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?
CBD is a natural chemical derived from the cannabis plant. One side effect of CBD to be aware of is its effect on drug metabolism within the. Rottanburg and colleagues were the first to propose a protective effect of CBD on THC-induced psychosis. They suggested that the high. But that is only if you can get your hands on unadulterated CBD tinctures to vape. What are the benefits and side effects of vaping CBD? concentrations of THC in these products in particular as the likely cause of many.